Kalamistra, barbers, barbers, stylists... How many years to hairdresser`s art? Part 1
Historians of fashion consider that to hairdresser`s art more than five millennia.
It is quite possible that there were first “hairdressers“ when “the person was wild, scary wild“ (R. Kipling, “The cat walking in itself“).
Our far ancestors in those hard times tried to give themselves a furious, frightening look: it was necessary to show to spirit - the patron of the tribe what it, the tribe, adequately its supports, and at the same time to frighten off spirits of strangers - angry and harmful.
People chose the patron from the strongest animals or birds to themselves and, cajoling the deity, tried to become similar to it - put on in skins, interwove feathers, canines and bones into hair.
Here also leaves that already in childhood of the world people created to themselves the chosen image specially and if to consider that everyone could carry a skin of the animal killed with own hand, then this image bore in itself and the social importance. The hunter, the more at him is more successful than skins, the more valuable he for the tribe. It was imitated, admired it. Still! Courageous, dressed in a skin of a leopard, with lion canines, with the head decorated with eagle feathers he was a standard of force, dexterity and courage.
Paid to hair special attention: shortened strongly grown by means of stone knives, greased hair with color clay and skuchivat them in plaits (primitive dreadlocks), decorated the hairdresses with beautiful, bright plumelets, cockleshells, flowers, bones of small animals. Most to do it not really conveniently, here and resorted to the help of tribespeople. Than not the first hairdressing salons?
There were centuries, the person changed, changing at the same time the vital way, so and concept about the appearance. The increasing value was gained by the hairdress capable to tell about the social status, an occupation and the residence of the person.
In Ancient Egypt the combing, a wave and putting on of a wig were equated to ritual which traditions were forbidden to be broken strictly. These procedures were carried out by specially trained slaves. Egyptians carried the hairdresses reminding modern “Caret“ - hair, cut at one level (is slightly lower than ears). As the most fashionable were considered black and it is dark - brown colors. As dye used henna. The bang, braids were taken away back, fixing them by a hoop or a diadem, applied crests and hairpins.
In Ancient Greece applied the thermal curling which was carried out by means of a heated metal core - “kalamis“ (then there was first quite reasonable name of the people working with hairdresses - kalamistra).
And the most fashionable trend of a classical antiquity there were wigs. The hobby for them sometimes gained unprecedented scope, even the special decrees ordering when where and what wig to wear were issued. Wigs from natural hair were carried only by priests and Pharaohs. Ordinary people were forced to be content artificial which were made of the linen or cotton painted threads, the papyrus, wool.
For the first time Romans began to decolour hair, using for this purpose alkaline soap (blondes already then were popular), sprinkling with hair with rice powder or flour. For gloss oiled hair olive, and for giving of a pleasant smell to them hid the flavored small pillows in hairdresses. Decorated the hairdresses with a beads, hoops, tapes. Sometimes such “tuning“ lasted till some hours.
Care of hair was carried out not only in house conditions, but also in the Roman public baths - terms, along with care of a body. Among a service staff of baths there were also free masters whose services for a small payment rather poor people who do not have the trained slaves could use. It turns out that in Rome began to train people in hairdresser`s art purposefully.
At the time of the Middle Ages clothes and hairdresses (especially female) began to be regulated strictly. The natural desire of the woman to look was attractively treated by church as “intrigues of a devil“ and appeared sinful. Women were most strictly recommended to close hair veils, caps, kerchiefs and other headdresses. In those days women did not do any hair, being limited to a long straight hair with a hair parting or the braided braid. Men it had smoothly combed hair, a beard and moustaches.
Renaissance in literal sense inhaled new life in hairdresser`s art. Shops of hairdressers, called them then on Latin manners - barbers, grew in the European cities as mushrooms after a rain. In the same time professional shops of masters of hairdresses appear.
The king of England Henry VIII the decree enjoined over everything to carry to men short hairstyles, but allowed to carry moustaches and a beard which should have been twisted. The fashion on short man`s hairstyles divided England into two camps: those who remained it is faithful to long hair and a short beard, and on those who shortly cut hair and let grow a long beard. Only at the beginning of the 19th century short hair “were strongly fixed“ in hairdresses of the English men, and then and across all Europe.
France becomes the fashion-maker in Western Europe of the 17th century.
And, of course, in France hairdresser`s art reaches unprecedented perfection. Court hairdressers daily think out all new models of hairdresses urged to emphasize greatness of the king and queen and their brought closer. The open forehead became distinctive feature of hairdresses of that time, notable women specially deleted for this purpose part of hair. Sometimes shaved off also eyebrows. Hairdresses became especially difficult, with abundance of twisted jewelry, feathers and diadems.
The queen of France Maria - Antoinette struck court with a hairdress 70 cm high (a framework for it the design from metal served), on which creation about 6 hours left. Ladies across all Europe exhausted the hairdressers requests to make by it similar beauty.
Besides metal designs interwove garlands from flowers into hair, a basket with fruit, models of sailing vessels, effigies of birds, the reduced copies of the Chinese temples and garden arbors.
Such hairdresses long did not dismiss and, going to bed, put on special caps the head. Sometimes in hairdresses the mice attracted with a smell of flour of which did powder were got. It was necessary to carry such “beauty“ carefully - there were cases when hair flashed from a flame of candles in candelabrums.
Further hairdressers invented models of hairdresses with the folding mechanism allowing ladies to go in carriages. It is no wonder that in Paris the first school of hairdressers which received the name - Academy of hairdresser`s art was open.
In France, as well as in a classical antiquity, wigs were appreciated. The need for them was so big that the king of France Louis XVI was forced to enter into staff of a service staff of the yard of 500 hairdressers. The wig became a sign of a high position and nearly obligatory attribute of a men`s suit. Without it the nobleman could not seem in public. At the same time the head shaved bare.
Commoners had no right for carrying wigs and grew long hair.
Wigs held on at the height of fashion up to the French revolution of 1789 when the royalty and all its attributes was overthrown. The persona non grata declared also the powdered wig. Carrying and even its storage threatened the owner with court.
But also further the situation in the hairdresser`s world was not less interestingly...