The true Beastliness - 3: How the pig became comical?
F. Dostoyevsky “Crime and punishment“:
“- Well - with, - was continued by the speaker, is solid and even with the advantage strengthened this time, having waited the giggling which followed in the room again. - Well - with, I am let a pig, and she is a lady! I have an animal image, and Katerina Ivanovna, the spouse washing, - the person educated and nee a staff - the officer daughter“.
the Symbolics of a pig in cultural half of Europe was not such monophonic, as in the Middle East. The Christianity leaving further and further Judaic traditions all - kept a sneering attitude to a pig - it the animal often symbolized libertinism, laziness and a gluttony. Witches and other devilish suite rode pigs. And devils were quite often represented with a snout. However, it did not prevent monasteries to contain huge herds of pigs.
I. V. Goethe “Faust“:
“About l about with
the Old woman Baubo rushes to a top
Astride a suporosy pig.
X about r
to the Sorcerer and a pig honor“.
“… There is no copulation
more disgustingly Spiral hlyabky pigs.
Seems as if hot fat,
Is sweet burning on fire and squealing,
Asks that, giving smacking kiss it is juicy and scarlet,
In heart started singing trembling of a knife.
If among caress love ourselves are
Herd of pork nesvezhevanny hulks, - Give to
permission, the Lord, and with demons
In water meat bring down an avalanche!“
In national folklore and literature the pig acts first of all as a form of all ignorant, low, limited and rough. Let`s remember such proverbs as “Is a good judge as a pig in oranges“, “Put a pig on a table - she and legs on a table“, “Houses - Ilya, and in people - a pig“, “To it as to a pig, a century not to look at the sky“.
B of one of I. Krylov`s fables the pig does not notice on a farmstead anything, except dirt and manure (“God forbid comparison to me to offend nobody! / But how not to call the critic Havronyey, / Which what will begin to sort, / Has gift one thin to see?“), in another - undermines oak roots in search of acorns (“Though its century be not, I will not regret at all, / Only there would be acorns: I from them grow fat“). Though on justice, rummaging the soil, the pig, except advantage, brought nothing to an oak. Here so got to a pig for her unbending neck!
Thanks to M. Saltykov-Shchedrin`s sketch the literary speech included an image of “the triumphing pig“ as symbol of the reactionary power. And N. Gogol presented to the dictionary of popular expressions “a pig in a skullcap“ (you remember, Hlestakov writes in the letter: “The supervisor behind the Wild strawberry charitable institution - a perfect pig in a skullcap“?) .
Well and of course the humour of an image was the main thing in symbolics of a pig. The lop-eared round muzzle with the patch and small eyes always amused the person. Medieval clowns and buffoons quite often drove about on pigs, parodying, for example, knightly tournaments. The big inventor Peter I with the “vsepyaneyshy cathedral“ quite often drove about on a team of pigs, shocking clergy. And how many times “pork lovely lines“ flashed in caricatures, and will not remember! So the species of a pig personally at me to a thicket raises a smile, than disgust.
D. Moskin “The short encyclopedia of a caricature“:
“A series of political drawings (“Obsessed with beastliness“ and others) was made by D. Gilrey at the end of the 18th century after E. Burke spoke the English people as about herd of pigs. The same phrase responded in the name of the Svinoy Korm weekly (for the working people).
... And. Terebenev in satirical drawing of 1812 harnessed a pig in the sledge and put on them Napoleon who is getting away from Russia, having dishonored it is final.
... “Alexander III when learned ordered to move away this pig“, as. Durnovo was caught stealing. This statement was used by caricaturists during the First Russian revolution when they represented the Minister of Internal Affairs“.