Whose memory we revere on July 28? V. O. Kappel of
After a reburial in Donskoy Monastery of remains of the general V. O. Kappel on July 28, in day of his heavenly patron - the St. prince Vladimir, revived tradition to his precepts it is necessary to gather on his grave all that who reveres memory of the general. This very important issue, is quite so created continuity between new generation and old Russia. Nowadays link of times is reestablished.
What special was in this person if in 90 years after his death, after 70 years of the Soviet devil-may-care attitude to it, a perversion of his ideas and concealment of his merits before the Fatherland, he already in free Russia became the hero who is honored and many respect? It is buried already for the third time, in a place of honor now - in Donskoy Monastery in Moscow.
Vladimir Oskarovich was an officer with high ethical and patriotic standards. Howled the believing Christian, the faithful husband and the loving father. Was a monarchist because of belief that the monarchy - the guarantor of stability, only for Russia, and unity. Accepted February revolution and overthrow of the tsar reluctantly, but it is quiet. But the Bolshevist revolution which is false called then October revolution - with disgust and hostility.
As soon as there was a possibility of military performance against the communistic power - made it without fluctuation and consistently struggled with a red infection to the end of the life. And so this fight began...
On July 8, 1918, soon after exile of Bolsheviks from Samara the risen Czechoslovak case, the Russian officers organized the first groups of young volunteers, one may say, of insurgents, for protection against the counterattacking red. As forces them were small - several companies of infantry, a squadron of a cavalry and two guns, none of officers hurried to take the responsibility of command of this “army“. Its chances against Bolshevist parts were clear to all. All officers were silent, having looked down … Suddenly rose modest by sight, almost to nobody the unknown 36 - the summer lieutenant colonel, and said in low tones:
- Times there are no persons interested, is temporary, there will be no senior yet, allow me to lead parts against Bolsheviks …
the lieutenant colonel Kappel moved To the first fight with group from 350 volunteers to Syzran. In this city there were 2 thousand Red Army men. Thanks to cunning, though risky maneuver - blow by very small forces from two parties, - improbable came true. The city was freed, the broken red ran, having left to winners as trophies a lot of military property. On its base volunteers “design“ “armored train“ and at once drive it to Stavropol (nowadays Tolyatti - in honor of the Italian communist) which is in 90 km from Syzran.
Appear there so unexpectedly that the enemy is overtaken unawares and runs. Then “kappelevets“ (soldiers of crew of National Army so begin to call themselves) free a number of the cities of the Volga region among which and Buzuluk where Kappel received in the fall of 1918 the general`s rank. From there they urgently come back to the place of “baptism of fire“ - to Syzran where local volunteers do not manage to constrain pressing of Red Army which is ordered by Lev Trotsky.
Immediately crossing Volga, Kappel gets to Syzran, smashes red there and will nearly captivate Trotsky. White traveling managed to capture the driver with the car. It turned out that just escaped were Trotsky and his aide-de-camp.
But Kappel to success since he is urgently necessary near Simbirsk cannot even be glad (nowadays Ulyanovsk). It changes the vehicle - from the vessel for a horse, and 200 km under Simbirsk which was protected by 2 thousand fly. well armed Bolsheviks under command of a komkor of Guy (in 1920 the commander 2 - go the Horse Case which in Poland brutally killed about 1000 captured Poles. Then after defeat near Warsaw in August, surrounded with Army Polish, it was forced to escape from the remains of the murderers in Germany, in East Prussia where their considerable part died of wounds and diseases in camps for the interned Red Army men).
Guy received the order from the Commander-in-chief of Red Army Vatsetis: “To defend Simbirsk to the death“ .
But unexpected approach moreover and not from that party from where it was expected (Bolshevist investigation reported that Kappel moves across Volga), took red unawares. When kappelevets advanced to a bayonet attack, red did not sustain and ran, leaving the weapon and ammunition, not managing to shoot “enemies of the people“. The success was stunning. Vladimir Oskarovich for the first time publicly acted in city theater, addressing residents of Simbirsk for support in fight for Fatherland. After this performance its group began to be replenished with volunteers quickly.
The Samara KOMUCh raised Vladimir Oskarovich to the colonel, and Trotsky appointed for his head a cash bonus - fifty thousand rubles. Reading this order, Kappel burst out laughing:
- I am very dissatisfied - Bolsheviks very cheap estimated us , - and added threateningly: - Well they should increase this price soon … the Case was presented to
very quickly. Contrary to instructions KOMUCHA which began to envy the commander in glory at the population the young leader decided to strike Bolsheviks in Kazan standing in 200 km. Having 3 thousand people and 4 tools, transported on vessels part of the infantry to the south of the city, and itself with other parts landed to the north of Kazan. Forces defending Kazan were three times more powerful and are still supported with “Lenin guard“ - 5 - m the Latvian regiment which was sent as the most reliable revolutionary force. But the Suvorov “speed and an impact“ used by Kappel, surprise and the different directions of attacks (from the South, from the North, plus action of conspirators in the city) led multinational forces red to a checkmate. Destiny of fight flank attack of the Serbian battalion of the major Blatovich on 5 - y moved the Latvian regiment which was given subsequently.
In the freed Kazan huge warehouses with arms, ammunition, medicines, ammunition, and also with gold reserves of Russia were taken (650 million gold rubles in coins, 100 million rubles credit signs, gold ingots = 500 tons of gold).
At this joyful moment from Samara Vladimir Oskarovich received the order: “Save Simbirsk! “ Having shipped the parts on steamships, Kappel hurried there.
A. A. Fedorovich wrote: “The huge military talent of Kappel spiritualized by passionate love for the country, impregnated with high consciousness of honor, honesty, sacrifice and debt faced too huge military talent of Tukhachevsky. (...) And Tukhachevsky is forced to depart and postpone the staff of versts to the third day of cruel, persistent fight on 80 to the west of Simbirsk. The city was saved, and again on the Volga open spaces the name of the person knowing only victories, a name of Kappel swept“.
to use this progress, Kappel suggested officers of the General Staff to a descent to take Nizhny Novgorod where there was the second part of gold reserves of the Russian Empire that would deprive of Bolsheviks of means: before signing of “Additional agreements“ to the shameful Brest world there were only 20 days. Transfer of 500 million gold rubles to Germany from this stock was one of conditions.
Vladimir Oskarovich hoped not only to take Nizhny Novgorod in which at Sormovsky plant similar was organized Votkinsk - Izhevsk antibolshevitsky mutiny, but planned to go further, to Moscow. However coward command and the civil government did not agree to the next victorious raid of “the Volga Napoleon“.
Correctly Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov wrote then: “Cowardice - the most terrible defect of mankind“ . But only the care of destiny of troops was not the cause of care of these politicians. They were afraid: that if this monarchist takes First-throned...