Rus Articles Journal

Gabsburg 2. Ferdinand II: “What to rule the country inhabited by heretics whether it is better to govern in the desert?“

After the emperor Rudolph a crown were inherited by his brother Matthias who had no children.

The imperial crown is put on by the archduke Ferdinand. During its board Thirty years` war between Catholics and Protestants of all Europe began, were killed or tens of millions of people died of hunger and diseases.

Therefore forever to Ferdinand the phrase which he very much liked to repeat was pasted: “The desert, than the country inhabited by heretics is better“.

The archduke Ferdinand was not given birth to reign, he was only a son of the archduke Karl Shtiriysky (the third son of the emperor Ferdinand I, that which managed “to reconcile“ the German Catholics and the German Protestants). The father`s cousin Maria - Anna Bavarskaya was his mother.

Ferdinand`s father was a possessor of so-called “Internal Austria“ (the Austrian provinces of Shtiriya and Carinthia, it is necessary to remember the section of possession Gabsburgov a muzhda of brothers Albert III and Leopold III here in the XIV century which was nearly led to transformation by Gabsburgov in the most ordinary princely sort). “Internal Austria“ was, thus, “a share of the younger brother“ and therefore in the 16th century the Emperor Ferdinand I gave it to the third son Karl.

At the age of 12 years Ferdinand lost the father, and he was brought to education to Bavaria (home mothers). The major fact is the fact that Jesuits of university of the city of Ingolstadt undertook its education. It is considered that Jesuits stuck together the puppet from Ferdinand and skillfully manipulated him, but the fact - Ferdinand from now on esteemed himself the soldier of Catholic church intended by God to restore its ancient doctrine.

Ferdinand, in something even more “basic in questions of belief“, than Philip Razumny, became the successor of an imperial throne. In 1617 he was proclaimed by the king of Bohemia (Czech Republic), got support of the cousin Spanish king Philip III and was going to put on an imperial crown. It cancelled at once those concessions which owing to weakness of the power Rudolf II gave to Protestants (to the nobility and citizens).

Therefore following 1618 the Czech revolt broke out (usually here it is accepted to describe a scene when the Czech freedom-loving noblemen angered by actions of “the emperor of Jesuits“ - Protestants threw out from a palace window in the Prague Hail of two deputies of the hated emperor). Whether for the proof of love of freedom prazhan whether to show that in the Czech Republic all political opponents can be thrown out in a window... Anyway, it was the cause of unleashing of the most awful in the history of Germany and the Czech Republic of war .

Without wishing to stop halfway, the Czech noblemen in absentia threw off from a throne and Ferdinand II and proclaimed the new king of the Protestant - the Elector Pfaltssky Friedrich V who stayed the king only one winter and received in the history a name of “the winter king of Bohemia“.

Meanwhile, revolt in the Czech Republic was supported by Protestants in Austria. Czechs under leadership Turn`s column moved to Vienna and in June, 1619 took control of its suburbs. At the same time the Austrian rebels occupied the imperial palace and demanded from Ferdinand to proclaim religious freedom. One of brave leaders of opposition Tonradel grabbed by a button of an imperial jacket and several times pushed Ferdinand. Fortunately, the city was just entered by cavalry group, and rebels were frightened of a loud sound of pipes.

In view of the fact that against the lawful king of Hungary and the Czech Republic Ferdinand “strengths of Protestant rebels“ united, in his possession he was come to the rescue by Sacred League from the Catholic states - Spain, Poland and Bavaria - under the leadership of the cousin Ferdinand, the Bavarian duke Maksimilian. The army of the Catholic coalition was headed by the talented commander Johann Tillie who in fight at the White Mountain near Prague crushed on November 8, 1620 army of Protestants, and Ferdinand`s power in the Czech Republic was restored.

the Tragedy of the Czech Republic

fell Upon participants of revolt severe repressions: 24 grandees in Prague were beheaded, a great number of noblemen and simple citizens are punished by lashes, imprisoned or expelled from the country. Then the confiscation of manors which accepted the enormous sizes began. Three quarters of all lands were taken away from the national nobility, given to monasteries and the German Catholics.

As the nobility from time immemorial was considered as the main force of the national movement, this action cracked freedom-loving spirit of the Czech people. At the same time there was a planting of Catholicism. All Czech books of suspicious content were burned. About 40 thousand families went to exile.

Albert Vallenstein (by origin not notable German nobleman from the Czech Republic) created army for the own account. In two years he brought together under banners more than 50 thousand adventurers from all Europe, organized them and created quite efficient army. The main idea of Vallenstein was that the army has to supply itself, collecting contributions from the population.

Soon he managed to put so business that the maintenance of the army was almost possible to the emperor. However, it was necessary to close eyes to the fact that everywhere where Vallenstein`s soldiers appeared, universal robberies, murders and cruel tortures of civilians began.

In 1627 Ferdinand accepts edikt about full prohibition of Protestantism within the Empire. Protestants had to or renounce “heresy“, or leave its limits. Upper Austria which rose against it it was necessary to pacify by means of troops of the cousin Max Bavarsky: mad resistance against madly radical measures of “uncompromising“ Ferdinand grew with an improbable speed.

The emperor`s obstinacy even more often began to play directly against him - having suspected Vallenstein of plans most to put on an imperial wreath, that displaced from the commander-in-chief post then the army of Catholics began to suffer one defeat behind another. Under the threat of a checkmate from the leader of Protestants of the king of Sweden and the famous commander Gustav - Adolfa even “uncompromising“ Ferdinand was forced to recognize that to return all Germany in a bosom of Catholicism is unreal.

But “fire and a sword“ it was succeeded to suppress “heresy“ in the Czech Republic and in Austria to Ferdinand (the truth, at the price of total ruin and a devastation - in 30 years from five Czechs survived only one , and Germany turned into the desert).

How it is possible to estimate this “uncompromising“ emperor? If Karl the Fifth was at war to revive the Great Christian empire, and his figure really reminds tsars of antiquity and Great Heroes, then Ferdinand the Second reminds “political leaders more - suicides“ Europe of 1914.

It managed to turn into the ashes all the hereditary lands which his ancestors collected centuries (almost always not by wars, and by means of a successful marriage) also which got to it absolutely incidentally .