Gabsburg 2. Rudolf II is the emperor - the magician? As we already managed to notice
, at Gabsburgov it was accepted to bring up offsprings far away from the house - for example, future emperor and the governor of Austria in Spain and vice versa.
And the successor “the emperor - the Huguenot“ Maximilian II - prince Rudolph - was brought up at court of the uncle, Philip Ispansky. As they say, “All of us - one family!“.
We will get accustomed to Rudolph`s figure as person. “It possessed deep mind, was far-sighted and judicious, had strong will and intuition … However such serious shortcoming as an obost which cause his tendency to a depression was was inherent in it.
On this basis it developed the aspiration to flight from reality expressed in impossible plans. The Spanish court manners encouraged its aspiration to be fenced off from the world, and political passivity became more and more characteristic sign of its board“. (Folker Press, the German historian)
From Spain Rudolph returned at the age of 18 years. The father, the emperor Maximilian II, saw excessive rigidity and religious intolerance in the eldest son, and mother Isabella, on the contrary, saw rare refinement in Vienna of those years and refinement. In general () Philip Ispansky Rudolph well remembered political lessons of the uncle in mother, and his manner of board differed in restraint and reserve even with the closest assistants and relatives. Besides, like Philip Razumny, Rudolph hated travel and was an inveterate homebody.
At the age of 31 year, having arrived to Germany, Rudolph lodged in Prague. Induced do it it understanding that wreaths, “to put it mildly“, do not love it. In general, Rudolf II`s figure means much to Prague and prazhan, really “Rudolf II Habsburg is the Prague emperor“. At its board the city was reconstructed, and in fact modern Prague is the city of Rudolph.
Rudolf was the passionate collector. It founded first “Cabinet of curiosities“ - a collection of books, manuscripts, pictures, coins and any rarities which strongly suffered from robberies during Thirty years` war. In particular, its child - a collection of jewels and minerals of various regions.
But most of all Rudolf became famous as the occultist and the magician. Still the legend that it managed to open a secret of “philosophers` stone“ goes. To Prague the English astrologers, alchemists Edward Kelly and John Dee (which in 1584 - m and 1586 - m lived in Prague) who were engaged as well quite serious (from the modern point of view) in researches in the field of mathematics and astronomy were invited. (And the dead in Prague) the great astronomer Tikho to Braga was an alchemist and working at his yard. Some connect the mysterious manuscript of Voynich which in itself - a riddle not less mysterious, than “philosophers` stone“ with Rudolf.
Rudolph was never married (and he lived nearly 60 years) that became subsequently a reason for his suspicion of secret homosexuality (as the English historian Alfred Rose considered). Rudolph led a secluded life, and many of the cloths written by its order differ in distinguished eroticism.
Education of Jesuits was not in vain: Rudolph began fight against Protestants in Austria, the Czech Republic and Hungary, than put the power some kind of under strong blow. Protestants are members of verkhneavstriysky and nizhneavstriysky landtag - concluded between themselves the alliance (1603) for protection of the belief, Catholics, on the contrary, considered actions of the emperor sluggish and insufficient.
Seeing the general discontent, Rudolf II thought to win round public opinion war with Turks. But here it was waited by the hard blow: all his opponents united in general revolt, Rudolph`s power fell in Hungary, Austria and Moravia. Only the Czech Republic and Silesia and that with reservations, remained faithful to the emperor.
When real threat of a collapse of the power of the House Gabsburgov in Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic was created, the relatives preferred to strip of power the unlucky emperor and transferred to her younger brother Rudolph - to Matthias who by huge concessions to Protestants kept the empire Gabsburgov from inevitable crash.
Rudolf II was forced to sign on July 9, 1609 the statement which is drawn up by diet received the name of “the diploma of majesty“. On the basis of this diploma “Czech brothers“ (Protestants) were balanced in the rights with Catholics. Czechs - Protestants acquired the right to build temples, to get schools, to have the synods, to manage affairs of the Prague university, to bring together army, to raise taxes for its contents, and in case of need - to convoke representatives of the Protestant population for meetings about common cause.
Rudolf II thought out means to take away the lands given it from Mathias, intrigued against it, but all - had to renounce the Czech crown. On May 23, 1611 Mathias was crowned, and Rudolph was given pension and kept behind him external honor. An illness and insanity (syphilis of the third degree) deprived of the power, exhausted, Rudolf II died on January 20, 1612, without having left lawful posterity as he was not married.
Modern western researchers believe that the government of the emperor Rudolf II - the classical embodiment of an essence of Renaissance and the coming Modern times, and its “strangeness“ - hobbies for an occultism, alchemy, a passionate collecting, probable homosexuality and the full political breakdown - as is impossible answer color of an era.