Rus Articles Journal

Gabsburg 2. Maximilian II is the Huguenot or the Last knight?

the Emperor Ferdinand the First for long life (and he lived 59 years) married only once, the princess - the successor of crowns of the Czech Republic and Hungary Anna Yagellonka. She gave birth to it to 13 children, from them 10 daughters.

Ten sisters and three brothers

Senior - Elizabeth Avstriyskaya - married the Polish king Sigismund II Augustus and when at the age of 19 - ti years died, Sigismund took her younger sister Catharina in the wife.

Other sister, Anna Avstriyskaya, became the wife of the Bavarian duke Albert V. Rod Vittelsbakhov to whom the duke belonged for centuries was at enmity with Gabsburgami, and marriage was conceived that to this hostility to put an end (running forward, say, that the plan brilliantly came true: Gabsburg and Vittelsbakhi became allies and periodically supported the union with dynastic marriages).

The following sister - Barbara - became the wife of the Italian duke Alfonso II from a sort Esther who ruled in Modena, Ferrara and Redzhio. The duke was a son of the daughter of the French king, the worst enemy Gabsburgov, grew up in France, and marriage with it was intended to pull out this part of Italy from - under French influences.

The sixth sister - Eleonora Avstriyskaya - married the master of Mantua Guilyermo (Wilhelm).

Three sisters - princesses did not marry and became nuns - Magdalena, Margarita and Helena. Medici`s

- “a family of poisoners“

Ferdinand and Anna`s Most younger daughter - Ioann Avstriyskaya - became the wife of the Grand Duke of Tuscany Francesco from a family of note of Medici. Francesco was true Medici, he did not love the melancholic spouse and had the constant mistress Bianka Capello. When Ioann died, the duke and Bianka who in the people was persistently called “Sorcerer“ were accused of poisoning of the duchess.

9 years later the duke who got married to Bianka right after Ioanna`s death died in one day with Bianka, and not unreasonably accused the brother and the successor of their death - Ferdinando who became a duke. The new duke gave Francesco and Ioanna Avstriyskaya`s daughter Maria Medici for the famous king of France Henry IV, the first spouse of not less well-known “Queen Margot“, the founder of a dynasty of Burbons on the French throne.

Heinrich and Maria Medici`s son, Ioanna Avstriyskaya`s grandson and Ferdinand Habsburg`s great-grandson - Ludovic the Thirteenth - that “the king from “Three musketeers“ A. Dumas.

Maximilian II was Ferdinand and Anna`s second child, he received the name in honor of the great-grandfather of the emperor Maximilian I. Future master of Austria on the birth was a venets, but youth was carried out in Spain, in the same way as by his father. The uncle - the emperor Karl the Fifth was his political mentor. In September, 1548 Maximilian married the cousin Maria, Charles V`s daughter. From 1548 to 1550 he was the emperor`s deputy in Spain.

There was a collision - the chief of family, his uncle Karl. He had full authority to transfer to all the Empire to the eldest son Philip. But his younger brother and the most true to him the person Ferdinand were categorically against - even Catholics in Germany extremely were afraid that Filippsvoy firm as steel, Catholic policy will cause split of the Empire on Catholic and Protestant and that to war there will be no end!

Reached that when in 1552 Maximilian was suddenly seriously ill, court were whispered that it was given poison, and it is made in favor of the cousin - Philip Ispansky. Having recovered, Maximilian lodged in Vienna and started responsibilities as the governor.

If Maksimilian`s father - Ferdinand who entered in 1558 on an imperial throne - was tolerant, then his son secretly accepted Lutheranism, and in the house Gabsburgov appeared “the Protestant prince“. The father had to promise the Father Pavel IV that Maksimilian will not leave a bosom of Catholic church officially, otherwise he will not become an emperor.

In September, 1563 Maksimilian became the king of Hungary, and after death of the father in July, 1564 became the emperor of the Sacred Roman Empire, and also the king of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. As - to Yura and the Protestant - the fact to it it was simpler to Catholic to mediate and reduce the positions of his citizens which dispersed on a religious sign. Deprived of “the iron principles in questions of Belief“ (as Philip Ispansky) Maksimilian the Second was able to afford big flexibility in the most difficult questions of management.

It is interesting that it (and it characterizes Philip Ispansky as the politician), having been at odds with the cousin who disappeared from “the Manoeuvers Saint of Church“, did not challenge his right for an imperial crown and over time improved the quite good personal relations. In 1570 his daughter Anna became the fourth wife of his cousin Philip II. Also Maximilian vigorously interceded for the Netherlands which passed into Protestantism which Philip tried to subdue fire and a sword.

Maximilian died on October 12, 1576 in Regensburg. Before death he refused the last participle, having remained the Lutheran and after death. The emperor was buried in Saint Vitus`s cathedral in Prague. Maximilian`s throne passed it to the son Rudolph, and later his son Matvei became the emperor.

Be continued.