Rus Articles Journal

Gabsburg 2. Ferdinand the First is the master, tolerant to all beliefs?

the emperor Karl the Fifth had a younger brother - Ferdinand. He was the fourth child of the archduke Philip Krasivy from a sort Gabsburgov and the unhappy queen Juana Kastilskaya - “Juana the Mad“.

On mother he was a grandson of combiners of Spain - the queen of Castile Isabella and her spouse aragonsky king Ferdinand nicknamed for firm as steel, commitment to Catholicism “Catholic kings“. Inquisition began to punish even the minimum deviations from articles of belief starting with “the Catholic king and the queen“.

On the father Ferdinand - the grandson of the emperor Maksimilian, that which, having married Maria, the only daughter of the last duke of independent Burgundy Karl Smely, found huge, but incredibly uneasy “Burgundian inheritance“, which brightest diamond of Lower Earth steel, differently called by the Netherlands.

Future emperor received the name in honor of the grandfather Ferdinand Katolik, the king aragonsky which, actually, and built “the empire over which the sun does not set. Ferdinand since youth was in a shadow of the ambitious brother Karl. The brother treated with jealousy that the younger Ferdinand who is brought up in Spain is loved by Castilians - him, Karl once, citizens - and sent it in the spring of 1518 to the Netherlands. Ferdinand did not return to favourite Castile any more, the destiny of his and his descendants undividedly belonged now to Germany and Austria.

When in 1519 Karl becomes an emperor, Ferdinand acquires the rights of his deputy in Germany divided into a huge number of independent principalities.

Ferdinand witnessed as on the Church Cathedral in the German city of Vormsa the monk Martin Luther acted with a statement of the ideas about need of correction of abuses for the Roman Church. In spite of the fact that the majority belonged to speeches of the scientific monk very quietly, Karl fell upon that with the most severe criticism, accusing of activity, dissenting in relation to the uniform Christian world. The imperial power he insisted on a ban of public statements and Luther`s sermons. Ferdinand could not understand why the brother came to such fury, in Luther`s words there is a lot of truth!

Ferdinand then was 16 years old, and to Karl 19.

In 1521 Ferdinand married Anna Yagellonka, her father Vladislaus II (from a family of the Polish kings) was at the same time the king of Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Hungary. These countries “were left“ from under a scepter Gabsburgov, and Ferdinand`s marriage pursued the aim to gradually return back them. At the same time he received from the elder brother their main patrimonial lands - Top and Lower Austria, Carinthia and Shtiriya, and also Krayna (so called Slovenia earlier), and a bit later - Tyrol. Several centuries owned them their ancestors, archdukes the Austrian houses Gabsburgov.

In 1536 marriage with Anna began to bring dividends - her childless brother Ludovic (on Hungarian Layosh), the king of Bohemia, Hungary and Croatia died in fight with Turks at Mokhache. Ferdinand made the lawful complaint for these deserted crowns. But Hungarians and Czechs did not recognize heredity of royal advantage in the countries. In October, 1526 the Bohemian diet elected Ferdinand the king, having set it at the same time some conditions, diets of Moravia and Silesia and recognized as sovereigns by a right of succession at the same time Anna and Ferdinand. In 1531 Ferdinand was also crowned by the Roman king.

Further Ferdinand had to fight long for Hungary with Turks, during that era the Great Ottoman Empire waged wars of conquest in Europe, and the task to stop the Turkish invasion to Christian Europe quickly became for Ferdinand business of his life.

Ferdinand, fight against Turks for Hungary

to Ferdinand resisted to

the master of Transylvania Janos Zapolyai whom in 1526 dissatisfied with the governor - the foreigner the Hungarian noblemen in the Tokay lock proclaimed the king. In 1527-1528 Ferdinand`s army intruded in Hungary, broke Zapolyai`s troops and expelled him from the country to Poland. Janos Zapolyai asked in 1528 for the help the Ottoman Empire.

In 1529 Suleyman Velikolepny`s invasion into Hungary began. Ottoman troops beat out forces Gabsburgov from the country and restored Janos`s power in most (east) part of Hungary. Janos Zapolyai in July, 1529 took the vassal oath to the Turkish sultan and was recognized by him the king of Hungary.

But the most dramatic situation in Ferdinand`s life there was an emergence in the spring 1529 armies of Suleyman Velikolepny at walls of Vienna! The siege of the capital of Austria is considered by one historians as showdown for large-scale invasion of Turks into Germany, and others - just as desire to unite Hungary under the power of Turks. Turks near Vienna underwent huge deprivations, the number of deserters increased, and after unsuccessful storm Suleyman Velikolepny ordered to recede. Ferdinand by means of troops of the elder brother the emperor Charles V kept the western Hungary under the power.

Ferdinand is an arbitrator of the German lands

Charles V “carried out all life in a saddle“, moving from one fight to another, his younger brother Ferdinand operated really and every day solved the most difficult problems. Ferdinand gained invaluable long-term experience of permission of the hardest disputes of princes and noblemen - Catholics and Protestants of kyurfyurst, princes, dukes and landgraves who passed into camp. When the elder brother by force of arms did not reach a clear victory, went into action younger, possessing ability to reach the agreement in almost hopeless cases.

The interreligious peace made in the City of Augsburg in 1555 became the main achievement of Ferdinand as governor. It formulated the principle “Whose power, that and belief“. His elder brother long time did not want to recognize the rights of Protestant princes to define the dominating religion in the state. He truly suspected that it will mean its personal defeat, impossibility preservation of the uniform Christian Empire and final split of Germany on a religious sign.

But there came day when even Catholics - allies of the emperor spoke that it is impossible to be at war infinitely, it is necessary to agree! So there came the personal triumph of Ferdinand Habsburg!

And it meant to his descendants that the power Gabsburgov remained also in that part of Germany which by force of arms protected the Protestant religion. The Augsburgsky peace was preserved more than six decades.

In 1558 Karl the Fifth renounced a crown of the Sacred Roman Empire, and his brother Ferdinand, but not the son Philip became his receiver - the emperor. Split of history Gabsburgov on Spanish was so designated and Austrian speak rapidly.

Be continued.