What is “not act“ or to What we can learn at ancient daos?
Probably, at - Wei (not act) it is possible to call the central concept of Taoism as culturally - psychological system. And at the same time the most unclear. Through not act the unification with Dao is reached, and at the same time it is the indicator of what looking for unities is on a right way. “Nedeyaniye“ means not so much inaction, how many non-interference to a natural order of things, not counteraction to the nature, natural course of events. And interferes, resists to a natural order of an ego or “I“.
It is considered that initially human nature is natural and is in harmony with the space beginning, therefore, with a natural stream of events. The Taoism in general proclaimed aspiration to naturalness, to natural simplicity and spontaneity. Up to achievement of the prime target: merges, identifications of the adherent with true essence of all things and phenomena, with a driving force of the Universe - Dao.
The personality, “I“, both in ancient China, and in the modern world - education very artificial, formed in the course of education according to requirements societies which has very artificial structure, the purposes, requirements. The personality acquires the norms accepted in this culture and requirements, sincerely perceiving them as natural to herself. And actively joins in society life: wishes, reaches, works … Realizing artificial requirements, following the established artificial values, being guided by the inspired ideals.
The actions proceeding from similar artificial values are considered in Taoism as a hindrance to finding (more precisely, updatings) the true nature. Return to a “ideal“ condition of unity with the world means non-interference of desires of an ego to our actions. At the same time actions continue to be made. Not act is not a passive divergence. Activity here not only is admissible, but also is normal, and is even desirable. But - activity spontaneous, natural, proceeding from true requirements of our nature. Not act means that ours does not interfere with this spontaneous creative process “I“, the artificial idea of the world and of itself which is guided by “ideal“ schemes, having.
Why artificial? First of all our habitual consciousness does not transfer existence of internal contradictions, demanding strict logicality, orderliness. On the other hand, it is habitual to us to learn the world, allocating in it contrasts: good - the evil, material - spiritual, darkness - light, the individual - the world. At the same time very few people consider that everything listed in reality does not exist that it is only our representation. It is convenient to us to perceive the world thus, no more. But the majority of us consider the idea of the world (and about to itself) as strong and objective reality. Nevertheless disagreements between reality original and imagined, as a rule, are solved in favor of the last. Proceeding from these schemes (more precisely, pictures of the world and myself), “I“ also act. Probably, excessive will specify that it has no relation to the original requirements put in our nature. In fact, the person lives not the life in the unreal world.
The purpose Taoist the practician - change of consciousness so that the person could look at the world impartially, not through the distorting points of the inspired representations. Not receiving new knowledge of the world, and ability to rise face to face with reality. And to perceive it directly, intuitively, without artificial “division“ into fictional contrasts.
For example, there is impossible an anthropocentric position, the person - an integral part of the world. And of course, there is no socially caused division “we and they“, “personal and others`“.
The same concerns also the personality. It is not necessary to introduce in it anything additional. On the contrary, when artificial constructions are cleaned, on a scene there are original I through which harmony of the universe is shown. Original I do not allocate myself from the world, more definitely does not oppose it itself. Artificial passions, attachments, desires do not create hindrances to either perception, or actions. The world is not so much comprehended how many it is perceived directly, bezotsenochno - not analytically, and intuitively and therefore completely and precisely.
The personality is perceived as part of the world. Therefore the personality is included in the processes of changes happening in the world. If “I“ do not interfere with these processes, the personality gains qualities of “fluidity“, plasticity, it becomes capable to flexible changes depending on the changing situation. In practice it significantly increases adaptability. Besides such personality is rather included in processes of changes - in fact, in life, constantly worrying and realizing the events. The inclusiveness in process of life sharply increases its quality.
There are no more or less important issues, “high“ or “low“ occupations (we will remember release from passions, attachments and social estimates). All life is important, each its moment, any business is perceived as proceeding in harmony with the universe, and this is important. Each business is made by the most natural - so, in the most effective way because Dao is shown in everything and everything includes. We achieve the objectives, considering the nature of things and following together with a natural stream of events.
It is possible to tell that on reaching a similar condition of action of the person simply are not perceived by it as own. Daos exists as part of the world, having almost dissolved in it, and the changes happening in the world naturally are shown in actions of the person. So, and actions of the similar personality are absolutely adequate to a situation, are spontaneous, timely and therefore are most effective.
Probably, this effect is the is best of all it is described in a parable about the cook (treatise “Zhuang - Zi“).
On a question of the tsar struck with his skill in cutting of hulks, the cook answers:
- Being entrusted to the Heavenly order, I conduct a knife through the main joints, involuntarily I get into internal emptiness, following only immutable and therefore never I encounter muscles or sinews, not to mention bones … In ink joints there is always an interval, and the edge of my knife has no thickness. When not having thickness you enter into emptiness, to a knife there will always be enough place where to take a walk. That is why even nineteen years later my knife looks so as if it just descended from a grinding stone.
However every time when I approach the difficult place, I see where it is necessary to me hardly, and I aggregate my attention. I fixedly peer into this place, I move slowly and smoothly, I conduct a knife diligently, and suddenly hulk breaks up as if the lump of the earth falls on the earth.
- Excellently! - the tsar Wen - Hui exclaimed. - Having listened to the cook Dean, I understood how it is necessary to raise life.
I it is valid, everything in the world is interconnected. In small it is possible to see big, in particular - reflection whole. And it is one more aspect of Taoist attitude. And therefore I will finish one more quote from Zhuang - Zi:
“How many brushwood to bring hands human, it all the same will burn through. But fire is thrown further, and nobody knows where to it the end“ .