Fight at Hattin. Who is guilty?
of Materials, telling about this event, exist enough. It is possible to find both works of historians, and reminiscence of those who were in the Kingdom Jerusalem in 1187 - m to year, and even notes of participants of the well-known battle. Very entertaining reading - different authors tell absolutely different stories about the same events, contradict each other to such an extent that it is difficult to understand in whose words there is at least a grain of truth.
It also is unsurprising, by this time notable senores of the Kingdom were divided into two hostile parties, and everyone saw the truth, and those who served or sympathized with this or that senor, this limited truth was written down.
There are no doubts that before and during Hattinsky fight leaders of Christian army made the mass of mistakes, inexcusable from the military point of view. However, the feeling it arises that if to gather all of them and to arrange dismantling on the subject which is taken out in heading, already in the second - the third phrase the word “treachery“ would appear. These a lot of things would explain, only there are different candidates for a role of the traitor, and serious proofs - zero.
We will try one after another. Main characters:
Gui de Luzinyan (1160 - 1194), the king of Jerusalem by the right of the spouse.
Amalrich de Luzinyan (1145 - 1205), konnetabl Kingdoms, elder brother of the king.
Raimund (1140 - 1187), the columns Tripoli and the prince of Galilee (the last - by the right of the spouse). Has no surname, comes from the house of counts Toulouse.
Gerard de Ridfor (1141 - 1189), Great master of Order of knights templars.
Balian D`Ibelin, (1142 - 1193), senor of Nablus.
we will try to restore events, one behind another Now.
Internal political situation. Within nearly a year (July, 1186 - May, 1187) the count Raimund Tripoliyski refused to obey the king, signed the separate nonaggression pact with Saladin and gave official permissions to Muslim groups to pass through his lands. Perhaps, played some difficult politics. Raimund repeatedly met Saladin, the personal relations - good, perhaps, even friendly. However, the king Gui signed the peace treaty with the sultan too.
Kisson. on May 1, 1187 - guo Gerard de Ridfor attacked the group of Muslims surpassing in force being in Galilee under the contract with Raimund Tripoliyski. Practically began war, besides not at the moment, most favorable for Christians. About hundred knights of Templars and gospitalyer died and approximately as much sergeants are much, military power of awards is seriously undermined. Absolutely mysteriously de Ridfor managed to escape, to him and two more knights.
Recruitment of army. In general in Jerusalem rather large number of pilgrims from Europe usually lounged about, among them there were both knights, and skilled soldiers of a simple rank. But summer of such people was very little, it was necessary to hire anyone. This circumstance almost objective, though here is doubts.
Twenty-kilometer march through the desert unambiguously and strongly undermined fighting capacity of Christian army. All skilled commanders understood it. The order on performance was given by the king. As a justification - a few years ago Gui de Louzinian, being the commander of army, in a similar situation sat out in Seforiya, than caused displeasure of the king Balduin IV of that time. However, in 1187 - the m of the king persuaded (pressed?) Gerard de Ridfor. Its reasons: if the offer to defend in Seforiya proceeds from Raimund Tripoliyski - it is necessary to do on the contrary. Amalrich de Louzinian, all this understood, could influence the younger brother, but did not make anything.
Preparation for a campaign. Horses refused to drink in the morning. Performance was not postponed. In a wagon train many carts were unclear with what, and water was forgotten to be shipped simply. Amalrich de Louzinian - konnetabl (rough, of course, analogy - the First Deputy Minister of Defence).
A halt in the desert. the Christian army had every chance to break straight off if not to Tiveriada, then to Tiberias Lake. In the morning the disposition and chances of the parties would be absolutely others. To stop the army which is parched with thirst in three kilometers from the lake moreover to get at the same time to an environment - which - that means. Options:
the Order to stop the king Gui gave, it is unclear what being guided.
the King Gui gave the order on the advice of Raimund Tripoliyski. Though the confidant Raimund`s column colourfully describes how that, having seen that the army stopped, naturally fell into despair and told that now everything is over.
the King was forced to stop army as the rear guard already stopped itself, without order (the commander - Balian D`Ibelin). However, somewhere sliped that not all rear guard but only the Templars entering it stopped (The great master - Gerard de Ridfor).
Deserters. Before battle six knights together with armourbearers ran across on the party of Muslims. Knights were vassals of the count Tripoliysky that does not do him credit, but in those days the senor was not responsible for political education of citizens.
Break on the North, to the village of Hattin. it was clear to All that in the strategic plan it will give nothing, and the main forces of Saladin will surely strike to the flank. The order was given by the king Gui who on it at the same time and as influenced - it is unknown.
The main forces of army moved on break by a marching column. Not only break was not successful, but from - for it the Christian army began to run away promptly. The king Gui ordered this group personally. The military adviser and responsible for creation of army - his elder brother Amalrich.
Raimund Tripoliyski`s group broke and left the field of battle. Versions three:
Muslims parted and allowed to leave to the count by previous concert.
the Muslim easy infantry parted, having been frightened of hoofs of a knightly cavalry. The count Tripoliysky instead of taking an opportunity and to strike to Muslims to the back, took away the group where far away.
After break Raimund Tripoliyski`s group was completely bloodless and disabled. The count got a heavy wound of which he soon and died.
After unsuccessful attempts of break the infantry crowded on the Northern Horn of Hattin, a cavalry - on Youzhny. It is possible to break the battle course, having only connected both parts of army. Infantry commanders sent the king`s messengers where far away. At the disposal of Gui de Louziniana - the strong group of a knightly cavalry, this type of military forces is specially intended for break of enemy ranks. If konnetabl Amalrich not in forces to construct secular knights - nearby there are at least three hundred Templars and gospitalyer at whom with discipline it seems as it has to be better. Three hundred skilled knights - force. Anybody - anything.
Further - defeat. But too some strange.
Knights in Europe, at that time later, conducted battles in two ways. The first - gentlemen`s. In such cases it was accepted to spare the opponent, it was more preferable to take him prisoner, meaning the subsequent repayment. On other tournament more knights, than died in such fight.
If battle was decisive, or opponents were irreconcilable enemies, the commander ordered to lift a red banner. Then lords and senores were obliged to thrash each other to death, despite of eminence and a personal contact. By the way, the French Oriflamma has such origin. On this background the name of cosmetic firm looks, at least, ambiguously.
It seems that fight at Hattin took place by gentlemen`s rules. After purposeful searches there was information about one famous person, in this battle the dead - the bishop of Accra. All others were taken prisoner. Except, of course, knights entering into group of the count Tripoliysky and in time the escaped Balian D`Ibelina.
However, in captivity with pleasure it was necessary not to all. Saladin with own hand killed with Renault of de Chatilion who was his personal enemy, ordered to execute turkopol (Muslims - apostates), and provided to Templars and gospitalyer the choice - transition to Islam or too execution. Several people became Muslims, but the majority - two or three hundred - were executed.
Somehow strange on this background the fact that most important of the knights hated by the sultan - monks, Gerard de Ridfor, avoided this fate looks, and in a year in general it was released wherever one wishes in exchange for the lock which and could so hardly last long.
By the way, remains a riddle as Balian D`Ibelin managed to avoid captivity. Or he left a battlefield long before an outcome, or left an environment directly through enemy ranks. It could be passed, all - Saladin`s friend.
Alas, I could not answer the question posed...