Day of the Navy of Russia. Who celebrates a floating holiday?
As well as many professional holidays, day of the Navy - a holiday floating, every year noted in other day. It has no accurately determined date. Mark out him last Sunday of July.
Began to celebrate it in far pre-war 1939. Then he was founded by the resolution SNK USSR and Central Committee VKPB. Then in Soviet period decided to bring order to holidays. And on October 1, 1980 “About festive and memorable days“ established by the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR to celebrate last Sunday of July. Since then and do.
In many seaside cities there take place parades of warships, disembarkation of a sea landing, there are salutes in the evening. Holiday very beautiful and fascinating.
It is devoted to the people protecting our country on sea open spaces. By the way, sea borders of Russia are six times more, than overland. So to protect is that.
History voyenno - navy of the country originates in hoary antiquity. In the 4-6th centuries east Slavs quite surely felt on sea open spaces. The small flotillas of Slavs consisting generally of boats - odnoderevka and castles, made military campaigns and just extortionate attacks to Byzantium.
According to the historian B. A. Rybakov, Slavs conducted sea battles considerable for those times: in 610 from the sea and sushi they besiege Cuolun, in the 623rd Slavic fleet attacks Crete, and in 642 - Slavs by sea come to the Southern Italy.
And what is costed by a legendary campaign of the prince Oleg to Byzantium! That when it “beat a board on Tsaregrad`s gate“. I will remind, according to “The story of temporary years“ there was it in 907. The prince Oleg went to Tsargrad (Constantinople). The part of its army was horse, the part moved on vessels. And the fleet contained 2000 vessels. Having seen such numerous fleet, poor Byzantines were frightened and decided the ships not to let to the city. For this purpose they blocked all gulf chains.
But Oleg “enjoined to make to the soldiers wheels and to put the ships on wheels. And when the fair wind blew, they lifted sails in the field and went to the city“. Beautiful picture, isn`t that so? Across the field under sails the whole flotilla slides.
Here Byzantines were frightened really and signed with Russia the peace treaty on very much conditions, favorable to us.
In later times Novgorodians made sea campaigns to Sweden. Long time Novgorod was the center of shipbuilding and navigation of Ancient Russia as in the period of feudal dissociation Russia lost exits to the Southern seas.
The first attempt to revive voyenno - navy was undertaken by Peter I`s father Alexey Romanov, having constructed the first real Eagle warship. Meanwhile small parusno - rowing vessels of the Zaporizhia and Don Cossacks continued the activity in Azovo - the Black Sea basin, despite of the one to whom waters belong legally. About Zaporizhia “Seagulls“ it is possible to write the separate poem! Small, high-speed, maneuverable (they had two wheels - on a nose and a stern), they just exhausted Turks. Will fly, will seize everything for now those think that to what - they already disappeared in fog.
But all - the merit of creation regular voyenno - navy of Russia entirely belongs to Peter I. However, the first fights at the Azov and Black seas were not really successful for Russia. And only after creation of the Baltic Fleet nice victorious procession of our fleet along open spaces of the World Ocean began.
On August 9, 1714 became history as day of the first victory of the Russian fleet. The cape of Gangut had it battle with Swedes. Petr himself ordered part of fleet in fight. This fight played an important role in the result of Northern war. After it Pyotr said the well-known: “The state which one army overland has has one hand and which and the fleet has - both hands has“.
And further - one for one set of victories of the Russian fleet. Here only some of them:
on July 9, 1770 - a victory of the Russian squadron under G. A. Spiridov`s command over the Turkish squadron in the Chesmensky bay;
on September 11, 1790 - a victory of the Russian squadron under F. F. Ushakov`s command over the Turkish squadron at Tendr`s cape;
on December 1, 1853 - a victory of the Russian squadron under P. S. Nakhimov`s command over the Turkish squadron at the cape Sinon.
However, then, at the beginning of the XX century, Japan struck a crushing blow on the Russian fleet, having won fights at Port - Artur and Tsushima. And the followed revolution order did much harm to fleet. Many professional soldiers emigrated or were shot.
The Soviet Union paid much attention to development of army and fleet. In 1922 in the country restored and brought several ships to alert, and since 1926 construction of the new ships and submarines began.
During the Great Patriotic War the military fleet defended coasts, landed landings, gave fire support to land forces, heated the enemy transport ships and provided an escort to ours. The well-known deliveries on a lendliza were carried out by sea, and Germans had no objection to destroy these caravans. Their protection from the German planes and submarines just was also carried out by our seamen. A lot of things were made by seamen in that war; then the marines - seamen who were at war both ashore arose, and not without reason Germans so were afraid of “striped devils“...
However and during peace post-war time our seamen nicely frayed nerves to “probable opponents“. At the time of cold war our boats emerged on the North Pole, made “underwater circumnavigations“. It were times when the main “sea battles“ left under water. To the forefront there was a game of nerves. Here seamen - submariners became the main characters.
Our seamen at that time had two main “entertainments“: the first - having found an unfriendly submarine, “to hang“ at it on a tail and as long as possible to accompany it, most at the same time remaining unnoticed. This quite dangerous occupation. Sometimes during such “games“ submarines just faced then long repair was required for them, and even perished. There is an assumption that the Soviet submarine “To - 129“ in 1968 in the Pacific Ocean died owing to collision with the American boat. Swimming near the coast of the USA was second “entertainment“.
Already during an era of the begun disintegration of the Union when the last secretary general conducted peace talks with the USA, voyenno - the navy significantly “gave a flick“ America.
In March, 1987 practically at the same time five atomic-powered vessels departed from the mooring. The case is in itself unprecedented as these ships usually keep watch alone.
Americans pricked up the ears, but boats went to usual areas of patrol, than calmed observers. Then in the appointed day and hour five boats made “turn all suddenly“, having formed marching to colon, and left on depth. Americans lost them. The real alarm began.
I represent! Five to the teeth the armed nuclear Soviet submarines move it is unknown where. On searches of boats tens of anti-submarine planes of the USA were thrown. Several submarines were sent to flight with the only task “To find Russians!“. Eight days Americans unsuccessfully tried to find our ships. And they entered the Sargasso Sea meanwhile and, without reaching the British Hamilton base on Bermuda, again “all suddenly“ changed a course.
Of course, it is a pity for Americans. They could find the ill-fated ships already on the way back. All five submarines safely returned on base.
Probably, similar “games“ go on open spaces of the World Ocean also today. Perhaps, it is big-time politics, I do not know. But I am proud of our seamen, and best of all my relation will be stated by lines from the poem of L. Passer:
Yes, the glory of the Russian seamen is immortal.
entered the names
of Those who loved Russia selflessly In history
I gave for the heart Homeland.