What the fleet Russian began with? Not so long ago we magnificently noted
300 - the anniversary of the Russian fleet. Many events were held, each school student knows that the grandfather of the Russian fleet is boat of Peter the Great. Little Petrusha had so a good time and when grew up, went to Holland and learned to build the real ships there. Peter the Great told: “To fleet Russian to be!“ There was also the Russian fleet.
So, traditionally we consider as the founder of the Russian fleet of Peter I. I do not want to belittle merits of this sovereign before Fatherland at all, but I urge to reflect: and whether there was in Russia a fleet in pre-Pertine times?
It appears, was moreover what!
I made experiment. Asked about 300 cadets of river school (future navigators) the same question: how you think what vehicles on water were used in the ancient time? Answered quickly: rafts, boats, galleys. Well, with rafts all is clear, connected couple of logs - and forward. Over time the person needed something more manageable, more mobile, than a raft. Then people began to do boats.
The very first boats were made of one whole tree. In this place I ask the cadets a loaded question again: and what you know the boats made of one whole tree? 10% can answer this question simply not (there`s nothing to be done, generation of Pepsi - instead of reading books animated cartoons about Simpsonakh looked), but the answer of other 90% is predictable to boredom. With pleasure of pioneers they to me shout that it is of a canoe . They, of course, are right. A canoe - the boat of the American Indians - was made of one whole tree.
But me always at this moment it becomes offensive to tears. Well why our children know about the American canoes and know nothing about our, Russian, Slavic boats - odnoderevka ?! That for immemorial neglect to native history and honoring of all foreign. Our young river transport workers - true successors Petrova put.
And so after to people bothered to float astride logs, they decided to improve them - to hollow a core that it was possible to take seat there in logs. Similar small boats independently from each other did many people of the world. The American Indians mentioned above did the canoes. Scotland found the most ancient fossil vessels - the hollowed pine trunks. Their age is estimated in 8000 years. Identical boats are dug out in Holland - to them at least 2000. On coast of Vistula, to the south of Warsaw, the hollowed oak trunk which age goes back to the third millennium BC of
was found Similar finds were made also in the territory of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. In 1878 - 1882 A. L. Inostrantsev`s expedition on the bank of Lake Ladoga found the first Russian boat - an odnoderevka. Scientists estimated its age approximately in 4500 years. So, will not be younger than the Dutch. Vessel this small: only 3,5 m long and
0,86 m wide In 1954 in the Voronezh region at page. Pike the boat hollowed from the whole trunk of an oak 7,5 m long was found in inundated deposits of the Don River. The age of a find is dated the III millennium BC. From internal part of boards it is possible to see pair openings - places of fastening of seats for oarsmen. Loops on each side of a nose and a stern intended for movement of the boat on shoal from one reservoir in another or for pulling it on the coast.
I do not know how there Dutches and Swedes built the vessels, and in Russia did so: the huge tree was cut down (most often an oak, a linden or an aspen), it was given the extended form. The turned-out pack was steamed out and “undressed“ stakes. Sometimes previously the core of a pack stesyvatsya on a third of thickness. Most likely, such way of production of similar boats was widespread also in the other ends of the world.
But, misters (as the satirist Zadornov speaks, be proud of Russians), in Russia there was one more way of production of boats - odnoderevka. Shipbuilders chose a suitable tree in advance and did in a live trunk a crack at all length of the vessel. Gradually, year after year, drove in into this crack wedges and struts so that to achieve the necessary form of future case.
Only after that the tree was cut down, and excessive wood was burned out or hollowed out. From within the pack was filled in with water and kept it in such state about a week. After “water procedures“ along a pack displayed fire. The tree uprevat, became flexible. Now in the case it was already possible to insert so-called oprug - the primitive facilitated frames. The basis of an opruga was made by a cockarde - the squared fir-tree range which had natural curvature.
You are already proud of our ancestors? To grow up the boat! What? Personally it brings me into wild delight.
Slavs, unlike the educated Europe, long did not want to leave easy odnoderevka. Over time they only improved them.
In the 10th century frames (cross beams) appeared. It allowed to increase boards a covering, having made a boat more capacious.
The Russian boat sheathed vglad by boards which were put on thorns began to be called nasady . The ancient nasada floated in the Russian waters even until the end of the 15th century while finally it was not forced out by the type-setting ships...