Rus Articles Journal

Philip Ispansky is the villain or the slandered lord? The king and the Governor of

For understanding of actions of Philip as it is important to mean the governor that he absolutely sincerely considered himself responsible before God for rescue of souls of the citizens.

Philip saw himself Ispansky`s king of the state, the head of the house Gabsburgov, and also the master of the Netherlands. Its prime target consisted in preservation and enhancement of possession of the house Gabsburgov, protection them from Turks, control of the Reformation and fight against Protestants - the main threat of the world empire Gabsburgov.

Unlike the father, he believed that the emperor has no need to participate in each battle personally. He entrusted to order troops to the commanders, and itself concentrated on development of strategic questions in management of the huge empire, “over which the sun does not set“.

In 1561 Philip elected the residence Madrid near which according to his order during the period from 1563 to 1586 Escorial - the symbolical center of its dominion combining the royal residence, the monastery and a dynastic tomb was built. With transfer of the yard and the central authorities to Madrid Philip finished the process of creation of the uniform Spanish state lasting centuries. From this point Madrid began to turn into the Spanish capital.

At the age of one year Philip began to be called as the Prince of Asturias - so at Philip`s great-grandmother queen of Castile Isabella Katolichka and her spouse the king aragonsky Ferdinand began to call the successor of a throne of Castile, and then and Spain.

In 1540 13 - summer Philip becomes a duke Milan. It became possible thanks to brilliant victories of his father the emperor Charles V in wearisome Italian wars with France. In fight at Pavia in 1525 in captivity the king of France Francis I who was forced to refuse the rights for the Milan duchy gave up (though, having received freedom, he right there renounced the promises). The emperor in 1536 intruded in Provence and besieged Marseille, as a result of his son set in in Milan, and in Northern Italy the power of Spaniards was established.

In 1554 Philip received from the father and a crown of Naples, or “Two Sicilies“. But two years later predvoditelstvuyemy the French troops captured by the duke Francois de Guiz Naples. In 1555 (a year earlier, than to be called the king of Spain) Philip becomes the governor of the Lower Lands (or the Netherlands), and in 1556 and the count Burgundian (GB, or Fransh - Conte, nowadays is a part of France).

Now we will give attention it to methods of management of the state. Philip long worked and developed, at last, own management style the enormous empire, it is possible to call it korolevsko - bureaucratic. But carefully avoided to trust some part of the absolute power to any person, it steadily reserved solutions of the main issues of foreign and domestic policy.

the Chief assistants to Philip in Spain were generally scientific jurists, is frequent a ministry. At the same time Councils - the State Council worked (according to the decision and coordination of questions of foreign policy); Financial council responsible for the solution of financial questions; the Council of War which is finally issued only at Philip. Council of Inquisition had outstanding competence. Huge possession of Philip in America Council Vest - India knew.

Philip approached the duties of the monarch extremely seriously: treating the officials it is suspicious, he was interested in maintenance of intensity between them. Daily Philip looked through huge piles of documents; its marginal notes also until now serve that as the convincing proof. He demanded that it constantly kept informed all events in all parts of the power. Appears from some of his letters that it sat up behind papers till the dead of night, leaving a desktop only when felt extreme fatigue and an exhaustion. As a result all information channels became isolated on Philip. He wished to pass all important decisions personally and only after careful processing of all arrived information.

If any of its environment neglected the official duties, used the situation for personal enrichment, interfered with implementation of the prime political, dynastic or religious targets of the king, then Philip without hesitation deprived of it a position and deleted from the yard, is sometimes indicative. So, for example, he dismissed the secretaries Francisco de Erasso and Antonio Perez and took them into custody. The duke Alba lost trust of the king and the situation at court from from time to time - for miscalculations in the policy in the Netherlands and arbitrariness.

Moreover, the then only heir, Don Carlos who was mentally seriously ill and fell under suspicion of cooperation with the Netherlands insurgents in 1568, Philip placed under house arrest. Soon after that Don Carlos died that rescued Philip and Spain from the imminent deep inside and foreign policy crisis.

When in 1578 his nephew (the son of his sister Juana Avstriyskaya) and at the same time the nephew of his wife Maria - the Portuguese princess - the king Portuguese Sebastian who did not leave the successor died in Africa, Philip as the closest relative raised a claim for a crown of the neighboring state.

After short resistance Spain and Portugal united, now the richest colonial empire of Portuguese also was at Philip`s disposal.