Rus Articles Journal

Gabsburg 2. Philip Ispansky is the villain or the slandered lord?

In the first part of a historical cycle about a dynasty Gabsburgov were surveyed the first five centuries of history of the best-known aristocratic family of Europe remarkable in many respects and Germany.

The narration broke on a figure of “the Emperor of the Universe“ - the emperor Karl the First and Fifth, the owner of the semi-world, “over possession of which the sun does not set“.

In something it was the peak, the shining height, Everest of the Habsburg saga, but this peak was not the last: for the first followed the second, and for the second the third. The following line of the narration will be devoted by Spanish Gabsburgam and to “an incest damnation“, then - the Austrian branch, founders of the Danube empire, Austrian power - the waltz homeland.

So, the XVI century, “The high Middle Ages“ came to an end, a new era - Modern times was conceived - and Gabsburgam it was fated to play in it one of the main roles - Keepers of tradition of Imperial statehood, Rimsko`s Guards - Catholic belief, persecutors of Protestantism.

Part 1. Philip`s youth

the Emperor Karl the Fifth dreaming to revive in youth the Roman Empire, the uniform Empire of All Christiaan Semli underwent vital crash - his dream was not achieved. Having recognized the defeat, Karl abdicated, but it divided the empire before renunciation in two: the earth of the Spanish crown - - bequeathed inheritance of the mother of the queen of Castile Juana Bezumnoy to the only son Philip, and inheritance of the father, archduke Philip Krasivy, - Austria, kingdoms Bohemia (Czech Republic) and Hungary and a crown of the German Empire of the German nation - to the brother Ferdinand who always was in the German lands the faithful deputy of Karl who “carried out all life in a saddle“ from battle to battle building the universal Christian empire. History Gabsburgov was once again divided.

About Philip Ispanskom there was a steady representation as well as the terrible disgusting villain, “a spider who of the office in the palace - the monastery Escorial entangled the networks all Europe“. Such Philip can be met in the remarkable novel of F. de Coster “A legend of Til Ulenshpigel and Lamm Gudzake“ or in Raphael Sabatini`s novels. But as far as such image of Belgian de Coster and Englishman Sabatini living in the 19th century corresponds to a historical image of the first king of Spain?

But - and it will be for the Russian reader surprise! - Spain treats memory of their first monarch (Philip in 1556 began to be called as the first “the king of Spain“) yours faithfully. Spain remembers Don Philip as king Philip Razumny! Still there is an interesting term “Black Legend of Spain“, the dictionary of Royal academy of Spain so speaks about it: “ChL. - widespread opinion on the sixteenth century (the Century of Spain) as popular negative belief in someone or something, as a rule, not having the reasons, sufficient on that“. So that`s that!

Don Philipp was born in Castile, he seldom saw the tireless father who only four times for 42 years which he was the king of Castile and Aragon came to Spain. Isabella, the daughter of the king of Portugal Manuel I was Philip`s mother. The father and Philip`s mother were a cousin brother and the sister, the harmful tradition of closely related marriages in the Spanish royal dynasty, eventually led to accident was so put.

When Isabella died while giving birth to the fifth child, Philip was not also 12 years old. In the childhood and youth at Philip the deep love to the nature, throughout all life departures on the nature developed, fishing and hunting became for him a desired and best discharge after heavy working loadings. Philip was very musical and when he itself became the father (and the father he was extremely careful), attached great value to attach to music of the children.

In 1535 for seven-year-old Philip the doctrine time began, his father personally chose teachers and tutors who, by the way, were guided by the treatise “Education of Christian Princes“ written by Erasmus Rotterdamsky in 1516.

Juan Martinez Sileseo and Cristobal Calvet de Estrella became the chief teachers of Philip, both are the famous scientists. The tutor to the prince put Juan de Suniga, the entrusted adviser to the emperor. If the last directed the yard of the prince with severity, then Sileseo was a soft teacher more likely. Under the leadership of mentors at Philip the love to reading for the rest of life developed. By the time of death its private library contained 14 000 volumes. Among books which were read by Philip II near numerous classical authors there were Erasmus, Duerer, Copernicus, Mirandola and many others, there was even a Koran.

But important omission in its education there was an insufficient learning of foreign languages (and in the empire which to it should be operated in the future, tens of the different people entered). So, in German he did not speak at all, Italian and French knew languages badly, but the main thing: he could not tell not the word on - Netherlands. In 1555 Philip accepted the Netherlands from the father and after the first words was forced to interrupt the French-language speech which the cardinal Granvell had to read up.

The father is an emperor attached enormous significance to early to recruit the successor in the solution of the state questions, in the letters to the son he pointed to it to heavy political responsibility of the governor, called Philip for justice and harmony in all decisions, induced it to protect Catholic belief and to enter fight against heresy (with Protestants) with all energy.

Philip since the childhood was very religious and deeply believing person. Also the father early began to devote the son in the most difficult political affairs, explained political alignment of forces, urged Philip not to become dependent in public affairs on certain advisers and to keep full independence in the state decisions.

In 1548 at the age of 21 year Philip for a long time left Spain. The father trained him as receiver, and Philip should become the father the most reliable assistant. It went to Italy where made stops in Genoa, Milan, Mantua and Trieste. Then, having transported through the Alps, he visited Munich, Speyer and Heidelberg, then through Luxembourg reached Brussels where met the father. Within a year he comprehended a management skill Germany, took part in Augsburgsky imperial Diet where he got acquainted with the uncle Ferdinand (the German king) and with the cousin Maksimilian (the uncle`s successor), and also with the most important princes of the empire. Then he devoted year to studying of the Netherlands.

The impressions which are taken out from the Netherlands affected architecture of the buildings and parks built by it subsequently in Spain in which planning he took the most active part. Also the Netherlands painting was fallen in love to it. Soon in its collection 40 pictures only of one Iyeronim Bosch appeared. These years Philip sincerely fell in love with the Netherlands to which its was fated to become “the main headache“ several decades later.

Be continued.