How to explain to the child what is language? Parts of speech and sentence parts of
So, we found out why all words in language are sorted in parts speeches - that it was more convenient to use. Now - how to use.
Words just like that dead freight in language do not lie - they work.
And to understand how work, let`s talk about you. You who? The boy, to you is 9 years, you have gray eyes and disobedient tufts, and call you Denis. And for mother you who?
And for the grandfather?
And for Dimki from the neighboring yard to which you went to birthday yesterday?
And if you come into shop, you whom will be there?
And in the bus?
But you all the same remain the same boy whose name Denis. Only every time you play different social a role. Social - means, public , a role in society. And on this role you have the different rights and different duties. You cannot pay to mother … for travel, and will not begin to show to the driver the diary. Right?
Each person in different situations plays the most different social roles, or, in a different way, carries out different social functions . Work for the person is social function too. The person can work as the pilot, the teacher, the seller, the fisherman, the cook, even the president and at the same time is oneself.
Words in language work too: they build of the offer .
The offer is finished thought. It can be very short, for example: I was tired .
Or long: I today by the evening was very tired because we at first went with mother to a zoo, and then to shop where long chose what portfolio to buy.
But this offer because it expresses to one finished thought. If further you tell what portfolio you bought, it will be already another thought.
The offer is under construction of parts of speech. Parts of speech work with sentence parts. It is their grammatical function, and, carrying out it, they have the different rights and duties too.
The offer is under construction under the laws. The main thing, in it surely there has to be information on the one who or that works and that happens to it. This information sentence parts bear main : subject - that about whom (about what) it is said, and a predicate - that is told.
The subject answers questions: “Who?“ or “That?“
the Predicate - on questions: “What does, did, will do?“ this someone. “Who is he?“ And even “What it? “
the Main members - the main, the offer does not do without them, and here others, those that answer questions “Where?“, “With whom?“, “When?“, “What?“ are members minor , optional. But all the same very much even necessary: they give to the offer exact sense.
Really, here if I tell: “Wolves sit“ . The thought is seemingly finished and what the thought is? Well sit and what?
But if so: “White wolves in a row in a red cave sit“ are already very much even a lot of sense. It is a riddle. And each of minor members helps to solve it. Predators for some reason of white moreover in a row (one near another) sit and what red the cave is? Solved?
Well, of course, teeth in a mouth!
How to learn what work is performed by the word? Yes on a question!
“Who?“, “That?“ is a subject; “What does?“ - a predicate; “What, where, to whom?“ - the minor member.
And here it is interesting, the person chooses to himself a profession on abilities: you are not able to draw - an artist you will not be, there is no hearing - will not become the singer. Women are not taken in soldiers. And the man cannot give birth to the child. People have social missions.
And at parts of speech of mission is?
It appears and. The adverb, for example, a subject cannot be, not that at it a question. But the noun or the pronoun replacing it because answer the same question, as a subject will easily cope with this role: (Who?) The boy plays. (Who?) It plays.
However, there is one condition: to perform work of a subject, the word has to stand in initial - dictionary - a form. The initial or dictionary form is a form of the word which is pledged in the dictionary. You will find the word “informats iya “ in the dictionary (it means the data, the message), and “informats of AI “, “informats iyu “ - is not present. These are forms (use options) of the same word - “information“.
How you think in what offer the word “snow“ will be a subject?
snow was not
All winter there was snow.
In the winter trees are shrouded in snow.
I love snow.
Of course, in the second. Only in it the word “snow“ costs in an initial form and answers the question “What?“.
And in the fourth snow offer is secondary part of the sentence. It is I I love (whom? what?) snow, but not snow loves me.
As a subject the adjective can sometimes act. For example: Red burns. But only in case in the offer there is no suitable noun. And as soon as appeared (Red light burns.), the adjective gives it work of the main member at once.
The second principal part of the sentence, a predicate, bears a lot of grammatical information:
1. Why we tell this offer - we report something (It plays ) or we demand ( Play! ).
2. When action happens (it played yesterday, either plays now, or will play tomorrow).
3. Even about that, who acts with , the predicate can give information too: game yu (who?) I ; if game you eat - you ; if game I eat , then we .
Therefore the offer can sometimes do without subject. And without predicate the offer cannot be constructed.
The verb is capable to transfer all this grammatical information only . Other parts of speech for this purpose have no abilities. And at a verb is. Toilers - verbs change all the time precisely to transfer information: why, when also who . Without verb there is no predicate.
Even if on sense it is expressed by an adjective, it needs the assistant - the link-verb “be“.
For example: Pie was tasty. (Was tasty, but now I already ate it). Day will be warm. (Will be, but did not come yet).
- And if so? The earth is round. Where here verb? It is absent!
Do not hurry. The earth round - it means that it not was round, not will be , and is round. This verb “ is “ - very lazy. It has no special sense, and he means only: something is available here, now or always. I ( is ) the teacher. You ( is ) the pupil. He ( is ) the fool.
To the verb “ is “ all the same who makes action. Compare: I ides at , but I am. You ides eat , but you are, it ides et , but it is, they ides ut , but they are.
The verb “ is “ does not change and therefore bears so not enough information that it is possible to do without it. Here also we manage. Rose fragrant. The pillow is soft. The father is a mechanic .
If there is no verb in the offer, it means that the lazy verb “eat“ is simply lowered, and its absence transfers information: is available here, now or always. This rule of Russian.