Okhotny Ryad. What history of this place?
“In Moscow forty sorok yes one Okhotny Ryad“ - are so said in the Russian proverb. And though I am not a Muscovite and I am there not often, it became interesting to me to learn history of this place.
The capital long since was famous for the markets. Probably, it is easier to list, than did not trade in this special peculiar world of food and various craft products.
But, despite a huge number of the Moscow malls, strict specialization was always observed here. The Bast and Hay markets, Pussy-willow and Mushroom markets, Horse, Dog and Lesnoy the markets are known. There was also a hunting market - Okhotny Ryad.
He received the name, of course, from - for goods which were offered in eager rivalry by hunters from the next villages: carcasses of hares and tetyorok, ducks and swans. Here it was possible to buy any hunting equipment: onions and arrows, drag-net, networks and even firearms.
Over time in the market as mushrooms after a rain, grew numerous benches and shops, passes began to remind between them streets, narrow, direct and long. Everywhere there were a lari, counters, trays, benches (they became folding and for the night cleaned up). Benches mostly were put from a tree, one-storeyed, with deep and extensive cellars - warehouses.
Cooks from taverns and restaurants, noble and merchant houses, salesmen and tradeswomen - hostesses were the main buyers. The prices in benches were those still, people were able to afford only edges, entrails or the impaired a little meat “with a musty smell“ more poorly. But gave short weight and deceived also that and others it is identical, observing the unwritten law of trade “You will not deceive - will not sell!“.
Almost each butcher shop had a slaughter and if in the bench where the top-quality goods were always offered buyers (various gammons, carcasses of rams and pigs, a game, a beaten domestic and wild bird), was quite purely and decently, then on slaughters and in cellars it is impossible and to a step was to step, without having got into the heap of sewage or a hole full of fetid swill. Hordes of rats were a commonplace and confused nobody.
“Since the ladders conducting in tents, floors and cages contain extremely carelessly, the dung is not taken out, everywhere the clotted blood which impregnated walls of the benches which are not painted as if followed on sanitary conditions, oil paint; on corners on a floor the litter, feathers, a bast mat, basts is outlined everywhere … Packs for the cabin are beaten and to contain slovenly, hulks are hung up on rusty iron nevyluzhenny kryuchya … In sheds at some benches there are tubs in which the skin removed from the killed of animals publishing an intolerable stench“ are soaked (Century. Gilyarovsky, “Moscow and Muscovites. Sketches of the old Moscow life“).
On Sundays literally apple had no place to fall in populous Okhotny Ryad. Each hunter respecting himself considered a duty to visit the market. Sometimes just to be thrown by the word - another with colleagues, to listen to hunting baizes, to sell something or to buy - generally, to prove to be and to look at others.
Noise and din did not cease for a minute, one owner extolled the goods, another invited in the bench, someone argued and bargained, abused the grabber - the seller or pilferers who dragged off a purse. Fights were not a rarity here, understood the reasons, but did not attach special significance to it. The bird`s hubbub was from everywhere heard: a set of cages with different types of singing little birds were hanged out on walls and stood on sidewalks, here arranged cock and goose fights, rates were accepted.
In Okhotny Ryad, as well as in any market, the great number of pickpockets darted about, the beggars babbling maids on any free patch the cripples (or allegedly cripples) begging settled down. Jingled on a psaltery, blind tightened sad (to move to pity) songs.
On a pavement before benches it was possible and to have dinner: pies, pancakes, gingerbreads, soaked and fresh apples, boiled crayfish, dried small fish. As drink kvass of various grades was offered hot sbiten (kvass from pears was the most popular).
The hunting market “conducted nomadic life“: at first it was on the place of modern Kremlevsky Drive, then the market “moved“ to Manezhnuyu, and after the fire in 1737 - to the place of present hotel “Moscow“.
In 1812 the wooden benches located in Okhotny Ryad burned down again. The exact cause of the fire did not manage to be established, did not exclude also an intended arson. Disorder, insanitary conditions and crime were always an enduring headache for the authorities of Moscow. According to their order, benches of the market should have been built of a stone now, it was strictly recommended to observe in them purity and an order. The guilty owners of benches were fined, deprived of privileges and even put in prison.
In the middle of the 19th century the market was moved on Lubyanka Square, and now here on Sundays fans of hunting gathered. Traded not only trophies and equipment, but also pigeons, hunting dogs, aquarian small fishes. People from all city gathered in the Annunciation (on March 25 on old style) on the market in order that, on ancient Russian custom to buy and set free birds.
After revolution of 1917 all benches of Okhotny Ryad were demolished, and on their place the eleven-floor building of Moscow hotel grew. All trade (in which already time) was moved to Tsvetnoy Boulevard, having laid thereby the foundation to the Central market.
In the thirties the 20th century Okhotny ryad Square became part of Marx Avenue, and only in 90 - e years now returned to Okhotny ryad Street a real name.
Fortunately, names of streets (sometimes even any more not existing) live much longer, than some monuments of architecture and art. Replaced new, sometimes not always clear why, successful old names still long live in the people.