The good religion was thought up by Hindus?
V. Vysotsky in the playful song sang this phrase with affirmative, but not interrogative intonation. And explained the reason of such conclusion with the fact that “ … we, having kicked off, do not die for ever “.
Really, for the person from the Western world, a product of European civilization, personal immortality - the most desperate dream and an unattainable award. Necessarily envy covers: dexterously these east followers of idea of a karma settled - behave decently and enjoy life behind life. Ride a sansara wheel as if this big wheel in an amusement park!
But why then Buddhists, too carriers of “karmic“ consciousness, perceived series of regenerations as painful and senseless whirl? Why the thought of it installed melancholy, hopelessness, feeling of own powerlessness before an impersonal and indifferent world order? The Buddhism which offered an opportunity to leave a chain of regenerations - actually, to descend from a wheel - became popular alternative. It gave hope, and together with it also feeling of the importance of own efforts, own conscious choice, moral work over by itself. Therefore call the Buddhism ethical filosofsko - the religious concept. It emphasizes its difference from doctrines because of which he grew up, - no, not immoral, but just extra ethic.
Than so the hope “inspired having kicked off, not to die for ever“? To understand it, it is necessary to get far deep into times and to grope there the answer to other question: what regenerates in “good religion of Hindus“?
As that, the erudite, atman of course will answer! Well, it it seems as soul, only in Sanskrit. Also will sin substitution of concepts. In Russian there is no concept close “àòìàí“, and the word “soul“ for each of us has quite certain semantic loading. It is possible to call the concept “atman“ one of key in Vedic culture of ancient India. The Veda - letters. “knowledge“ (cf. with Russian “to know, the nobility“) - collection of sacred books of brahmanism, religion of tribes ariyev,
which created culture in the valley of Ganges still BC In brahmanism atman is an essence of the Universe, its intimate beginning and at the same time universal space law, the principle of a vseedinstvo. It is possible to allocate two aspects of the concept “atman“ conditionally:
1. Atman as uniform world substance.
2. And atman as presence of this substance at the certain person.
It is possible to draw a parallel between this last aspect - an individual atman - and what in our tradition is called “soul“ only with the known share of convention. For us the soul, irrespective of religiousness degree, is our egoism, actually “I“, our personality, identity, what distinguishes me from the general for all people of the animal beginning. Unlike individual “I“ persons atman am “I“ deep, identical with universal. For the person it is an opportunity and a way to approach the world Divine.
This task, finally, also was the main for the follower of the doctrine. It was necessary to try to obtain by means of spirituality the merge “I“ with the Absolute, that is, actually, fully to staticize in itself divine presence. A necessary condition - gradual refusal of everything in itself that disturbs that there is no Atman, including with individual feelings and experiences, any attachments and even thoughts as any external experience - a hindrance:
Five knowledge together with thought,
stop If the mind,
That it stays idle, speak, - the highest state “.
Thus, extra personal Atman, the only way to whom is limit leaving in itself, appears a kernel of the human person:
“ When the sun set when the moon set when fire went out when the speech
stopped what there is light for this person? Atman becomes light for it “.
After death when the body is dumped, there is “a return to sources“ - merge to world Atman, similar to return to a cloud of the drop falling to the ground and again evaporated. It is full disintegration of the personality which, however, was not endured by the developed brakhmanichesky consciousness as loss because no “personality“ in present understanding, in principle, also existed, there was only Atman`s game in forms and things of the world. Posthumous immersion in Atman - the highest stage of self-realization for the carrier of this consciousness. If to attract the same analogy to water, the drop cannot endure the return to the World Ocean as the personal tragedy.
Moreover, the votelesnivaniye, the embodiment (“the placing in flesh“) of Atman is considered as not benefit limiting absolute potentialities of the universal Divine. Mortal life, so, and the individual, in itself - nothing, value has only the Absolute. It also possesses immortality, without having began, the end. Thus, in any form the idea of immortality of individual soul in the “pure“, correctly understood brahmanism cannot exist. So, there is also no transformation as there is no what could reincarnate. It forces us to reconsider seriously ordinary submissions of rather Old Indian doctrine about reincarnation.
What is then the doctrine about a sansara - transformation - and a sansara circle in which living beings are doomed to rotate eternally? In pure version of the doctrine it is actually search of options of the embodiments - transformations actually Atmana. For descriptive reasons we will compare it to circular motion of water in the nature. Water can be a small piece of ice, a snowflake, a rain, remaining, inherently, the same water.
“ As uniform fire, entering the world,
Will conform the shape with various shapes,
And uniform internal Atman of all beings
Will conform the shape with various shapes,
But remains out of them “.
This circulation the karma - one more concept demanding specification moves and operates. The karma is not requital for sins, it is the uniform extra personal law, similar to the law of energy conservation. This word in Sanskrit (language of Vedic culture) means “business“, that is act which energy moves a sansara wheel.
Idea about reincarnation of individual soul - no more than simplified demotic understanding of this extremely difficult, owing to the abstractness, the philosophical doctrine of elite circles. For national consciousness everything was more simply and more literally.
At the same time, fear of not good birth in a body of an animal or dirty being which was considered by a consequence of not good acts in life, induced to behave adequately, to observe customs and to honestly execute the lot.