Who thought up the word “tank“? The general E. Svinton of
Some historians consider 19 - y a century the most successful century in development of European civilization. And the longest. Because on their representations it began before calendar term, with the French revolution of 1789. And ended when on a calendar there was a century 20 - y, in 1914, from the beginning of World War I.
World War I was accident. Which, undoubtedly, occurs if the inexperienced beginner takes the wheel of the mighty car. Hastily showed it: there is a gas, here a brake, and here to you a wheel to turn where it is necessary. Moreover encouraged, patted shoulder. Katya, buddy! In a moment you will reach! And if that not so - on the run you will understand!
Here also understood! Governors still considered war as a normal way of the solution of all arising problems. Last argument of kings. Generals who, as we know, always prepare for last war had no objection to do some fighting too. Especially as arsenals were replenished with the new weapon. And misters officers considered war as an adventure for real men. Which, like any adventure, has to come to an end quickly. War, “normal“ on former concepts, had to begin in the summer that to celebrate Christmas already in cozy, house, a situation, in embraces of lovely ladies.
World War I was war not “normal“. Military operations did not stop by Christmas as politicians - optimists counted. It did not end and by Easter as politicians - pessimists assumed. War turned into position. The front line did not move. Continuous military operations without visible result began to exhaust resources from the warring countries: material, financial, human.
The machine gun was the most terrible murderer in the war. He was also the murderer of war in its former understanding. Any smart plans of generals and reckless courage of soldiers and officers vanished in ashes at the next okopchik where “the sweet couple“ - the machine gunner with the assistant sat down. Traditional means of break of the front did not help. After a terrible shelling machine gunners got out of shelter, took a position, and the soldiers who were going in to the attack remained to hang on a barbed wire.
All warring nations began to look for feverishly technical means for break of the enemy line of defense. Everyone - the.
Sane British already at the time of the notorious Lefthander became famous for various mechanical miracles. Therefore it is not surprising that they decided to apply to break of an enemy front line armor self-propelled crews, tanks.
The tank at that time called a big tank, capacity for liquid. A frivolous name the new weapon was given for the purpose of masking. During transportation of the first mechanical monsters on the front they were carefully covered, and in accompanying documents designated something like tanks. That is objects quite peace and it is enough in the war minor to interest the railroads of the German spies which were darting about around. The major Ernst Danlop Svinton (Ernest Dunlop Swinton) (1868-1951) was the author of this idea.
Svinton`s position at the beginning of World War I was same frivolous as the name offered them for armored track laying vehicles. He played a role of the official war correspondent of Great Britain.
Svinton, the representative of old Scottish clan, was born, however, not in northern mountains, and in the south of India. What for the British of that time was not exotic at all. Let`s remember at least the famous writer and the poet J. R. Kipling (1865-1936) who was born in Bombay.
AA. Svinton by family tradition chose military career, became the engineer and served at first in native to him India, and later caused a stir in the second English - Boer war (1899 - 1902). By results of this war he wrote the book which became military classics. This book was devoted to actions of the small maneuverable, well armed and well trained military groups. To put it briefly, it was one of the first books on tactics of divisions of a special purpose.
By the beginning of World War I E. Svinton was the major and the quite famous writer. Several its books appeared under pseudonyms, and history russko - the Japanese war long time was published only for office use. So appointment as the official war correspondent of Great Britain was quite reasonable. Actually, other war correspondents in England were not. The Ministry of Defence of journalists on the front did not allow. Main literary success E. Svinton can be considered introduction in English and many other languages of the term “neutral earth“ (No man`s land) at this time. The main success of E. Svinton as military, it is possible to consider creation of tank troops.
On E. Svinton`s memoirs the idea of the tank suddenly came to its mind on October 19, 1914 when it conducted the car on the French roads. Most likely, the autumn rain and quality of a paving suggested the major this idea. Besides, Svinton already saw in work of a tractor which the British Ministry of Defence began to buy as draft force for transportation of artillery pieces.
In November, 1914 it submits to the Ministry of Defence the project of the mechanical vehicle on caterpillar to the course with bullet-proof booking for destruction of enemy tools. The commander of the British forwarding case in France the general of J. The service jacket (by name which, by the way, the military single-breasted coat with big patchpockets is called) rejected the project. But U. Churchill who was then the First lord Admiralteystva paid attention to it. At its insistance in the Ministry of Defence created committee on the overland ships. Thanks to such verbal balancing act U. Churchill could justify intervention of the department in “others diocese“.
The fact that military seamen took part in the birth of the tank is still reflected in voyenno - sea tank terminology. Even in the known song it is sung: “ crew fighting vehicle“. By the way, E. Svinton in the note called future fighting vehicles “cruisers“.
In January, 1916 there was a car which became a prototype of the first fighting English tank. And the first fighting use of tanks happened in the morning on September 15, 1916 during attempt of allies to break through the German front on the Somme River.
Fight continued 5 hours. 49 armor boxes two human growth high slowly crept forward, rumbling with the engine and reserving puffs. However, sluggishness, indestructibility and the huge sizes of the first tanks made the main panic impression on the German soldiers. Despite desperate efforts of machine gunners, armor monsters carried wire entanglements and without special work overcame the first line of enemy entrenchments, pressing strengthenings and blindages. British broke through a front line throughout 5 km and promoted on 5 km in depth. Losses at the same time were insignificant.
But tanks it was a little, and soon enough they ceased to frighten infantrymen. And then and gunners began to fire and put moving fortresses out of action. War became position and, to all appearances, infinite again. However, in 1918 the end and it came.
E. Svinton finished World War I in a rank the general - the major. In 1922 he headed plants A. Citroen in England which made semi-caterpillar cars - all-terrain vehicles of a design of A. Kegress.
In 1924 A. Citroen and A. Kegress conceived to carry out trans-African motor rally of the all-terrain vehicles. At the same time participants of motor rally several times had to cross the English colonial possession in Africa. Thanks to E. Svinton`s petition French got permission to it without the slightest delay.