Rus Articles Journal

To whom was the Old Union favorable?

B 1292 the king of England Edward I announced the decision: John Balliol will be Alba`s (Scotland) king.

Generally, Alba was quite independent state, but after death of the queen Margarita on her throne there were fourteen applicants at once, and they could not agree among themselves in any way. To whom such idea - to choose as Eduard Dlinnonogogo`s arbitrator came to mind, it is unknown.

But Eduard, having appointed the king Alba, began to consider him the vassal. Not formally - at full scale: also subpoenaed, both demanded service, and placed military groups in the Scottish locks.

John Balliol decided to oppose such state of affairs. But not to one against such powerful power as England to act, allies are necessary. And so the contract called subsequently by the Old Union (Auld Alliance) with France and Norway was also signed. Alba repeatedly acted earlier in the union with these states, but the well-known contract was signed in 1295.

It not especially helped the king John. Already in the following, 1296 - m, Eduard Angliysky intruded with army on Alba`s territory, captured Balliol and forced to sign renunciation. Allies? Stated moral condemnation, on that and calmed down.

The king of England operated Scotland as the province. Then, of course, Wallace, Bruce, War for independence. It is separate history. Neither to Wallace, nor nor French, nor Norwegians helped nothing to Bruce. However, it is possible not to mention about Norway further at all, it somehow slowly from this coalition faded.

And Philip Krasivy gave the daughter for the prince of Wales.

Even after Bennokbern British did not calm down and continued to consider Scotland as the subject territory which only slightly rebelled. In 1319 - m, after the Maytonsky field covered with corpses of the English priests, Edward II was forced to sign with Robert Bruce a truce and by that to recognize him too as the king.

But London did not leave black plans. Invasion behind invasion. About allies - French nobody remembers.

French, in 1346 - m

remembered the Crushing defeat at Kresi, the English army wanders about Northern France as at home, there is nothing to oppose. The French diplomats persistently remind the king of Scotland David I of an allied debt. The young David Bruce impressed with their eloquence was moved. The Scottish army without special problems marched to the nice city of Durham and began to ruin its vicinities. The Northumbrian militia tried to prevent it. As a result - Nevills Cross-country, Scots are defeated utterly, the king David - in English to captivity. Independence of Scotland again questionable.

It is hard to say with what measure these feats helped France, but British took Calais and meanwhile on it calmed down. About the union all parties temporarily forgot. Or rather, forgot at the state level.

1356 - y. The huge army of the king of France Jean Dobry caught small group of Eduard, prince of Wales, near the city of Poitiers. In the ranks of the French army - the Scottish volunteers. The information about three Scottish knights personally caught sight to me, but impression such - they were the whole group there. Everything ended with shameful defeat, but not lord Douglas is guilty of it, eventually.

By 1380 French felt on a horse again. They managed to win several small victories. By the same time the Black prince died, Edward III died, John Chandos died. It is time to throw out British from the continent.

But military operations go not as French would like. There is fear that again they will be bits, and is strong.

Ambassadors to Edinburgh rushed off.

On English - the Scottish border - continuous skirmishes and raids “for the small river“. Up to occupation of the nice city of Bervika. But it is formal between England and Scotland - the world. The French allies convince the old king Robert this time that it is time already and to do some fighting. In confirmation of good intentions to Edinburgh there arrives the limited French contingent under Jean de Vienn`s command.

Proud French knights treated the Scottish allies scornfully. Type, savages uneducated. Though many Scottish lords were trained at the French universities. Constantly quarrels broke out.

But here it became clear that the strong English army vigorously marches to the Scottish capital. Jean de Vienn ordered to the brave soldiers to be loaded on the ships and left back home.

Scots somehow managed not to allow the enemy to Edinburgh. A bit later, in 1388 - m, army under command of the count Douglas crushed British at Ottebarna. Not that it was epoch-making battle, but after it England concluded a truce both with Scotland, and with France.

The truce with France lasted even till 1415, with Scotland - it is less. French, enjoying a peace respite, received news of a siege of Edinburgh in 1400 - m, about defeat of the Scottish army at Homildon Hill in 1402 - m. Internal troubles of islanders.

But in 1415 - m Henry V resumed military operations and crushed French at Azenkure. Now questionable existence of the independent state of France. Among French - disorder to battle for the mad king of persons interested it is a little.

And under such circumstances - a victory of French at My God in 1421 - m. Only actually French in the six-thousandth army which crushed British - it is good if couple of hundreds. The others - Scots. Jon Stewart, the count Byyukhen ordered. The duke Clarence, Henry V`s brother died in this battle. However, survive it, the king could deliver by sight to the brother for purely French mistakes made by it.

1423, fight at Kravana. This time the count Byyukhen lost fight. It is possible to understand - Scots this time in its army there was less than a half, the others - French, Gascons, Spaniards, lombardets who at the first pressure left positions and ran.

In 1424 - m - Verneyl. In army of the count Byyukhen of Scots about a third. Everything began perfectly - the French cavalry managed to get the English archers and to disseminate them. But same French - instead of developing success, they with enthusiasm plunder the English wagon train. British of it do not forgive. Scots were protected persistently, but forces are not equal, the army is crushed in parts. The count Byyukhen, the count Douglas and practically all Scottish soldiers died. Most of French managed to run. On it participation of Scots in Centenary war ended.

By the way, during this period Carle`s dauphin with enthusiasm distributed to the Scottish lords the French count and ducal titles. Only lands, to titles applied, were in hands of British.

Anyway, France during this difficult period stood, Joan of Arc soon appeared, and in 1453 - m British were expelled from the continent.

In 89 years after fight at Verneyle and through 218 after the conclusion of the union France got into a difficult situation again. Tried to fight for the interests in Italy, suffered several defeats and got stuck finally. The worst - England was on the side of opponents of France.

1513 - y. Again it is time to remind the king of Scotland of the Old Union. The king James, without asking excess questions, began to prepare for performance of an allied debt - to plunder Northumbria, with ladies from border locks to polyubeznichat.

Besides - the king Francis I sent to the help to the king James IV group of authoritative military experts under the leadership of the count d’ to Ossy. The French specialists told the Scottish king about miracle force long peaks, and he ordered to arm with these five-meter pieces the most part of the army.

Two hundred years ago Scots quite successfully used such peaks against a heavy cavalry. Then nature of war also the arms changed, changed. Throughout all the 15th century the fear in the opponent was inspired by the Swiss pikinyora. But, in - the first, the corresponding tactics was for this purpose necessary, and in - the second - at the beginning of the century the XVI Swisses began to understand that their branded weapon became outdated in new conditions.

Scots with clumsy peaks came on a marshy hollow, rising to the village of Brankston. Under fire of the English artillery, by the way. The Floddensky field - a subject, separate, tragic for Scotland.

But the Scottish lords at last began to see clearly. When in 1542 - m James V tried to push out them on war with British, some just ignored royal orders, and others ran up after the first skirmish. There is no enthusiast of the Old Union left.

If it is purely formal - nobody terminated the Old Union. But in 1560 - m the Edinburgh contract which provisions were in conflicts with the provisions Auld Alliance was signed. And in 1603 - m James VI became the king of two kingdoms, and in these conditions the union directed against England would look, at least, strange.