July, 1187 - go. What fight at Hattin is well-known for?
the Kingdom Jerusalem exist 88 years. Yes, Muslims managed to tear off Edesskoye`s county. Yes, among sovereign senores of the kingdom there are squabbles and quarrels. But the state of crusaders in the Oversea country strong stands on the feet. With the sultan of Egypt and Syria Salakh hell - Dean (Saladin) - the world.
There is quite serious internal problem - Raymond, the count Tripoliysky and the prince Galileysky, one of the most powerful magnates, does not recognize the king Gui and lays down such conditions of bringing of an ommazh which cannot be accepted. For settlement to the count the representative embassy is directed.
Oddly many senores who were a part of embassy had urgent affairs, and they dispersed in different directions. From a direct way only knights of the Temple and Saint Ioann`s knights did not evade.
Masters of Templars and gospitalyer had breakfast in the lock of Feb near Nazareth when the messenger brought news that nearby, at Kisson`s sources, the big Muslim group stopped for rest. Within several hours all who could only carry arms were brought together. Suites of masters, garrisons of locks of Feb and Kako, noble senores of the city of Nazareth. In total 130 knights plus 60 sergeants turned out - it is a cavalry. In the city and vicinities it was succeeded to take three - four hundred infantrymen. With this group the grand master of Templars Gerard de Ridfor went towards to the enemy.
Muslims were in the principality Galileysky under the agreement with the count Raymond. However, there was a speech about small groups which task was a maintenance of merchant caravans. And here - the whole connection, five or seven thousand led by the sultan`s son.
Sudden attack of a heavy cavalry bore fruit - soldiers of the sultan trembled and began to run up. But there is too much them, Saladin`s son ordered them. Therefore - counterattack and an environment. Survived only three Christians - Gerard de Ridfor and two close knights to it.
The first of May. It is war.
There`s no evil without good - Raymond Tripoliysky, having seen as events develop, spat on the pride and took to the king the oath of fidelity.
At the end of June Saladin`s army occupied the city of Tiveriada, the capital of Galilee. The small garrison of the Tiveriadsky lock still held the fort. Lady Eshiva - the spouse of the count Tripoliysky and the princess Galileyskaya ordered.
The Christian army gathered quickly. Not all liked the young king Gui Louzinian, but in the face of danger most of senores and knights forgot about the antipathies. Not too successful moment - several months ago in Jerusalem and vicinities many pilgrims among whom there were both knights, and just skilled soldiers lounged about. But on spring almost all of them came back to Europe.
Nevertheless it was succeeded to bring together army big - 1200 knights, two thousand of a light cavalry, plus 16 thousand of infantry. Seforiya was the traditional place of collecting army of the kingdom. From here to Tiveriada - it is slightly more than twenty kilometers. What is it?
Nevertheless the count Raymond opposed a campaign:
- Tiveriada - my city, and my wife there, and none of you are eager to raise a siege as I. But all - - let`s remain in Seforiya and we will strengthen defensive positions.
Many senores agreed with the count. But in the morning - the order of the king: to act in a campaign. Horses for the unclear reason refused to drink. Carts much with themselves gathered, but forgot to ship water.
In vanguard - the vassals of the count Tripoltysky plus soldiers who arrived to help from Antiokhiya. A rear guard under Balian D`Ibelina`s command - his own team plus Templars plus gospitalyer. The king Gui orders the main forces personally.
Twenty kilometers - nonsense. On the fruitless and waterless Israeli desert, on a July heat. In a heavy armor. Under continuous firing - horse archers of the sultan of quiet life did not give. People fell both from arrows, and from a heatstroke.
But here and end of a way. To Tiberias Lake - steam of kilometers. The soldiers of vanguard exhausted with thirst already see its tender waters. And here - the order of the king: to stop on a lodging for the night.
Stuffy July night. Water both was not, and is not present. Around Christian camp bushes and a grass burn - Muslims set fire specially - soldiers of the kingdom Jerusalem feel, as in an oven. Muslim archers have enough arrows - Saladin specially drove several loaded camels. Such arrow not to punch a good armor, but not all have them, and horses and are not protected at all. Absolutely nearby on the earth water flows - soldiers of the sultan scoff.
Morning on July 4. The Christian army is surrounded. There are two options. To break on the East - to the lake and to Tiveriada, then at once it is necessary to engage with the main forces of the sultan, but if there is a success, then strategic. It is possible on the North - to the village of Hattin. This direction protects the case is scarlet - Dyne, less strong. But in general, break in this direction gives nothing, and Saladin`s case, of course, will strike to the flank. The option is losing.
As a result it is decided to break on the North.
If to break - moved a marching column. And immediately got under attack from three parties at once. Raymond with the tripoliyets and Balian D`Ibelin with knights - monks counterattacked and achieved some success - rejected Muslims. But the main forces of Christian army did not manage to be developed in a fighting order.
Then it seems as were developed. But continued to mark time. However, Raimund Tripoliyski`s group was covered from the flank now, and he struck blow to easy infantry is scarlet - Dyne. After group of the count the most part of infantry flocked.
Muslims before knights of the count parted. One speak - on secret arrangement, others - having been frightened of hoofs of a heavy cavalry. Raimund Tripoliyski broke in the direction of Hattin. Also took away the group further on the North.
The infantry did not manage to break. The infantry against infantry, but is more than Muslims. Attack choked, infantrymen - Christians began to recede slowly.
The district near Hattin - the plain flat almost and two high hills - Hattin`s Horns. It turned out so that the army of the kingdom Jerusalem broke up to two parts. Infantrymen departed and occupied defense on the Northern Horn, pushed aside a cavalry to Youzhny.
The king Gui sent the messenger to the Northern Horn. He transferred the order to go for break, for connection. Infantry commanders sent it where far away. In - the first, infantrymen were parched with thirst and were hardly capable to active actions. In - the second, it already in any gate - having strong group of a heavy cavalry at the order, to force to go for break infantry.
Generally, infantrymen were crushed on the Northern Horn, cavalrymen - on Youzhny. Desperate counterattacks were still undertaken, but it was the initiative of certain knights, and control of Christian army is lost completely.
The count Raymond Tripoliysky with four stepsons and the son of the prince Antiokhiysky broke on the North. Balian D`Ibelin (“Kingdom of Heaven“) managed to run in the southern direction. The bishop Akry died. All other notable senores were taken prisoner.
During fight Muslims took the Sacred Life-giving Cross, one of the main Christian shrines. So it also disappeared then it is unknown where, only its particles remained in some Christian temples.
After Hattina Saladin led the army to Jerusalem. Balian D`Ibelin headed defense of the city, but it had no chances, on October 2 the garrison of the Sacred city was forced to capitulate. In the next months Muslims took to the Acre, Beirut, Sidon, Jaffa, Tiveriada, of course, and it is a lot of other cities and locks. Askalon next year was transferred to Saladin as repayment for the king Gui, Gaza - for the master of Templars Gerard de Ridfor. In hands of Christians there was nearly one Shooting gallery. Plus far Antiokhiya.
The Jerusalem kingdom existed for a long time, but all its further history - attempts though to return something from former possession. Which - what progress was, but local, unstable. And then something to hold became a task though. Until in 1291 - m everything failed finally.