At the beginning was - what? Correctly, to callas!
concerning art of the Islamic countries are considered to be that God forbids Muslims to create images of living beings.
However in the main sacred book of Muslims, the Koran, there is no such ban. It appeared in the 8th century and entered initial texts in the 9th century as reaction to polytheism and idolatry of the territories captured by Islamization.
This ban is not casual also from the ideological point of view, creating an image, the person lays claim on the fact that he is a prerogative of only one Creator. But within his power only a form, without smothering. Therefore in day of the Last Court of its creation will torment him, demanding that it gave them soul, and the infernal flame will burn it.
Nevertheless, in practice the ban was rigid and was observed strictly only concerning registration of mosques, religious schools - madrasah, vestments and carpets of cult appointment, sacred books and other especially significant works. In secular architecture, books, ware and other household subjects of the image of people and furthermore animals and birds were a commonplace.
And in cult art the specific kind of an ornament on the basis of an interlacing - well-known an arabesque developed and reached perfection.
Making a start from the flexible and plastic vegetable motives obtained from ancient art, the arabeskovy ornament developed in giry - a geometrical pattern from lines, stars and polygons. But also in this visually “rigid“ form it remained what was initially, - image of paradise, a paradise jackpot.
Likening of the Temple to a tree, the God`s people - to the blossoming stalk, paradise and Rescue - to vegetable motive goes back to the Old Testament. Let`s remind that Islam recognizes and will read the Revelations transferred to mankind with the prophets preceding Mahomed, including with Adam and Ibrahim (Abraham), Dawood (David), Musa (Moisey) and Iza (Jesus).
In the graphic ukrashennost of an arabesque it is similar “decorated“, that is the poetic speech. This likening becomes obvious in connection of an ornamental ligature with calligraphical inscriptions and in independent use of text inscriptions (in the singular graphic solution) as an ornament. The most significant elements of the mosque are quite so made out, for example.
Domination of the text in registration of cult object is reflection of the defining Word role - to callas .
It is a basis and a source of all real. The word, a divine Name, corresponds to the book ( kitab ) the same as the Creator - to creation, boundless opportunities - to their real embodiment in life (the world, the person), the world heavenly - to the world terrestrial.
Not casually church service in Islam - actually sacrifice to God - is carried out by a gift the Word (reading the Koran). And visible representation of the Word in Islamic art an essence demonstration of God who cannot be represented any otherwise.
For Muslims reading the Koran on church service - the same that for Christians a participle. It is a way to carry out and express the participation to the Lord. But if in Christianity “intermediary“ - bread and wine as a symbol of a body and Christ`s blood for this purpose is required, then in Islam the same bloodless sacrifice is made by filling praying “the Word of the Lord“ (to callas Allah).
It is difficult to present more direct and at the same time sublime way of acceptance of the Creator! Self-sufficient, almost unreadable and esthetically perfect inscriptions on monuments of Muslim art are not only and not just jewelry; these are images of Words of the Creator. But unreadable does not mean “senseless“. It is always a certain and significant phrase (or a name) which writing can be sated to such an extent with decorative elements (curls, vegetable and geometrical motives) that the graphics of letters is practically dissolved in the general pattern.
The solution of so majestic task does not suffer an arbitrariness therefore there were special, resolved and standard calligraphical styles. The first among them both on creation time, and on sanctity degree - of a kufa , nothing decorated rectilinear and extremely strict.
Names of God and his prophets whereas quotes from the Koran - more elegant handwriting suls , created on the basis of kuf are written them on cult buildings . Here the difference between a name, to callas , and the text / book, kitab is visually shown . The Word and the text (book) make the hierarchy which is developed from top to down from God to the person.
Presence of the Word in the form of a set of inscriptions in furniture of the mosque or decoration of a significant subject, being Bogoprisutstviya`s symbol, has bigger value, than the act of their reading. Therefore inscriptions can look and settle down so that it is almost impossible to read them, - turned, too highly etc. It is not accident, but part of a plan.
Later, decorative and sophisticated styles naskh , of shreds , nastalik and a sofa were applied by in registration of secular books and household items. But also in these things of the distant world, world of ashes, the idea of a calligraphical inscription as the embodiments, updatings of the world heavenly remains.
This passion of medieval art consciousness, including Muslim, to an embellishment, to esthetic development practically any thing - not an excess and not empty tendency to luxury. It ideally - the unique way of implementation (existence giving) of a thing.
Only in such form the thing, a physical subject, approaches a divine plan of. But only in this case its existence becomes justified.