Who can be juror?
Russia, centuries being operated by autocrats, did not save up rich historical experience of democratic legal proceedings. The principles of autocracy not always corresponded to the principles of honest and impartial judicial proceedings.
For the first time the proposal on introduction of a jury which was not making success was submitted still to Catherine II in 1767. Almost in forty years Alexander I also agreed with opinion of the grandmother.
Nevertheless, as a result of judicial reform of 1864 juries appeared in imperial Russia, existed more than half a century and were abolished by the decree “About court“ No. 1 in November, 1917.
Than the most democratic of all Russian institutes of the power court “on conscience“, allowing to avoid punishment even to some ardent opponents of the mode, the new Bolshevist power was not pleasant? You judge.
One of the most high-profile pre-revolutionary cases - business of the revolutionary, a narodnitsa and the terrorist Vera Zasulich. In 1878 it shot at a breast to the St. Petersburg city`s mayor general Trepov twice. The official survived.
During Zasulich`s court did not try to deny that shot at the general, but claimed that her purpose was not to kill the hated despot - the city`s mayor, and only to humiliate it. Jurors believed the defendant, having rejected charge of attempted murder. Vera Zasulich was released directly in the courtroom while the conviction threatened her with imprisonment for a period of 15 - 20 years.
Modern lawyers estimate that process as court of emotions. Whether unpredictable emotional courts of the party which proclaimed dictatorship of the proletariat were necessary?
There were years. In the twilight of the Soviet power at the end of 80 - x years of last XX century the problem began to be discussed in society again. Alas, talk and opinions so them also remained. At most, that was included in the Soviet legislation - the thesis about a possibility of application of juries - expanded board of jurymen in certain cases.
In the history of modern Russia the jury is revived in 1993. Practically any citizen of the Russian Federation can become a juror. Candidates for assessors are “appointed“ by regional administrations casual selection of electoral lists. Representatives of any social groups, from the poor unemployed to cool businessmen can get to jury.
Among restrictions - age of candidates. They have to be not younger 25 and 70 years are not more senior. Besides, jurors cannot have unspent conviction or have mental diseases.
All participants of trial select jurors: judge, defender, accuser and even the defendant. Having received the invitation letter on selection, the citizen is obliged to be on it. This provision is enshrined by the article of the constitutional law “About the Judicial Russian Federation System“: “Participation of the juror in administration of justice is a civic duty“, - same as service in army.
At the same time, the law is strict not to all categories of fellow citizens. Military personnel, priests, judges and lawyers, parents who are bringing up juveniles of kids have to refuse legal basis. Good reasons for refusal the bad knowledge of Russian, shortcomings of hearing and religious beliefs is considered.
About in what jurors in court - the following article are engaged.