The programmed training. What is it?
For the first time about this method were exorcized in the Soviet Union in the eighties of the last, that is twentieth century when it was translated from English and the book “Chemical Exercise Machine“ is published in the original name “Chemistry made easy“. Literally: the chemistry made easy.
This book did not inspire officials from education, teachers too. Found a set of faults of the book: does not correspond to the school program, subjects, inexact formulations are not so located. Well, teachers whom I asked to give a response, to use it did not advise.
But the pupils who risked to work with it achieved fine progress.
Today our education endures crisis. Textbooks are written so that without teacher - the commentator not to understand them, and competent and, the main thing, owing to the objective reasons, is not enough teachers able to interpret material. Service of the tutor there is enough road: professionals are able to appreciate the work and the time. And cheap tutors are the same teachers (only in a profile), and often training is replaced with coaching.
Therefore it is a high time to remember a method which allows the pupil to do without teacher in general, that is about the programmed training .
Its principles: 1) sequence; 2) availability; 3) systematicity; 4) independence.
Other these principles are not always realized in the school program?
1. Sequence. the School program represents some kind of spiral: the foundation of a subject is laid at elementary school, new profound information leans on basic knowledge. If they for any reason are not acquired, this information will be groundless. Try to explain to the child why at multiplication of fraction by fraction the result appears less, than initial number, and at division - it is more if it did not acquire what is fraction in general and than more denominator of fraction, it is less than subjects.
2. Availability. its absence is explained by quality of the school textbooks written in cloth language, oversaturated by terms, abstruse words. Besides, it is rather frequent both textbooks write, and programs are made by the teachers of higher education institutions who are not knowing and not considering features of children`s psychology.
3. Systematicity. It is not just a regularity of lessons. The system is something whole, connected, interdependent. The school program, measuring a dose of knowledge which needs to be brought to the child at a lesson, does not provide the mechanism of establishment of communications with the knowledge which is already gained earlier: learning rules, the child is not able to apply them, does not see in them need.
4. And at last, independence. Is what is not supposed at cool - fixed system of training. Independently the child has to perform homework, at a lesson the pupil is independent only on control, and control is a result.
The programmed training - training with in advance assumed result . Fundamental difference of the programmed textbook from usual that it cannot be read in a row. All material in it is broken into small parts, or headings. In the first heading the small piece of information is given, and then the person has to apply this information: or to squeeze the passed words, symbols, formulas, or to solve the problem similar sorted, or to find the correct answer from several offered options.
If he is byldostatochno attentive, acquired information, then in corresponding in a heading (for example, 25) receives confirmation of the correctness, and then a new piece of information.
If a choice is made wrong, then will explain to it what he was mistaken in, and will return to an initial heading, giving the chance of the repeated choice.
Thus, the pupil “is doomed“ to find the correct answer. All question in that, what is the time will occupy its search it.
Everyone works at the speed: on it do not hang labels (you are stupid!) it does not need to prove the competitiveness, to it those who understood quicker do not prevent to think, and do not brake those whom did not reach yet.
He is not connected by a framework of a lesson and derives pleasure from the process of training as itself finds the correct answer.
Material in programs is located by the principle from simple (long ago the witness) to difficult and allows to accent focal points of a subject (that just and the teacher has to do, explaining a question essence). It is also the principle of systematicity .
They are pluses of the programmed textbook .
the inability, unwillingness to read or that worst of all, a ridingofobiya - fear of reading can be minus. In the latter case the child needs the help of the qualified psychologist. The second minus - absence of motivation. However it is a problem not only programmed, but training in general.