Rus Articles Journal

How the figure ruined a copyright? Part 1. For record and rewriting of

Ya already wrote disks what discontent audiomagnates was caused by emergence of tape recorders. A possibility of uncontrollable copying and distribution of records beat a purse of owners and producers. But a compact - cartridges suffered because they understood that magnetic record is not so qualitative and durable as a mechanical recording on a plate. With each rewriting quality of a magnetic soundtrack inevitably worsened. That to a vinyl record, in house conditions you will not cut it.

“Digital“ record at the correct copying remained invariable (the code is not mechanical windings of a path). However, producers of the first a compact - disks hoped that the technology of their production will be hardly available in house conditions. But here CD - on magnates the huge a dirty trick was played by programmers...

Probably, not all know that an optical compact - a disk, as the carrier, programmers just borrowed - information on the computer exists in the form of the same binary code. On computers disk drives for CD right there appeared. Revenues in 1990 to the market of the first CD - R (CD - Recordable) - so-called “pig“ - a disk of single record became a turning point. Right there were also CDs - rippers - special programs by means of which music from license CDs - Audio was loaded into memory of the computer. Now a compact - any owner of the computer with the writing CD - the drive could copy and write down disks. To copy and write down without the slightest losses of quality.

What to tell about “piracy“ on a global scale! Special scope received this process in the countries where the income of the population did not allow to buy expensive license CDs. Remember, how in 1995 - 97. our markets were filled with “piracy“ production from Bulgaria. And then and domestic freebooters were brought up. Some time is the population tried to convince that license disks are more qualitative than “homemade“. Gradually this difference was erased, “pirates“ even began to print full brochures - inserts.

However the magnetic film was not given, continuing to keep the leading positions in the sphere of fast record and rewriting. So far in 1992 Sony did not let out a special format of a compact - a minidisk (MD) . The minidisk combined in itself as properties of an optical disk (record by means of the laser), and cartridge advantages (the magnetic principle of record and rewriting). A beam, heating a disk, remagnetized it, but, unlike the cartridge, record remained steady against magnetic fields at a usual temperature. And still: at the small sizes (7õ7 cm) MD ordinary CD (could contain the same 74 min. sounding, as well as and at record decline in quality 4 times more). Similar spaciousness was reached due to technology of compression of a sound ATRAC (in more detail I will tell about the squeezed formats later). Minidisks were very popular on radio and television stations, but in masses (from - for the high cost established to Sony on the license) did not get accustomed. While production CD - R, CD - RW and their players was not monopolized, and they were released by hundreds of firms.

But in 1997 CD disk drives - RW (CD - ReWritable) and the disks of the traditional size corresponding to them went on sale. They quickly enough fell in price, and now the consumer could rewrite one compact hundreds of times.

The principle of the record CD - R and CD - RW was a bit different, than CD - Audio. In CD pig - R between the reflecting and protective layer settled down a layer of special organic substance which under the influence of the laser changed the transparency. And if the code on CD - Audio is an alternation of poles and islands, then on CD - R - alternation of dark and light sites.

Substance of a working layer of CD - RW possesses other remarkable property - to change under the influence of a beam the phase state (with amorphous on crystal and vice versa) therefore transparency of a layer also changes. When the beam heats a layer above critical temperature - substance passes into an amorphous state and remains such and after cooling. When heating below a critical point - substance restores a crystalline state again. These features allow a disk both to erase and to write down.

Specifics of “structure“ of CD - R and CD - RW reduces their “warranty period“ in comparison with CD - Audio. They are more sensitive to light and mechanical pushes therefore their service life, depending on storage conditions and operation, is defined by from 3 to 10 years (though, apparently, it longer).

Progress in the sphere of an optical recording on it did not stop. In 1995 in the market the new format - of DVD , urged to revive idea of creation of the high-quality optical video carrier appeared. For record and reading of information in DVD - drives the laser with smaller, than in CD - drives, wavelength was used. More exact was as a result reached (and consequently also qualitative) reproduction.

the disk from - for narrower cutting of paths began to have impressive capacity. On one party of standard DVD it was possible to record up to 4,7 gigabytes of information (in 7 times more, than with CD). Programmers delightfully tut-tutted and right there DVD - drives got. And DVD began to use as the universal digital carrier of information again. Whether it is worth saying that DVD - R and DVD - RW … right there appeared

the consumer to DVD as the next optical carrier - of Blu - ray Disc appeared (“A disk of a blue beam“) where for record the laser with a smaller wavelength is used, than in DVD did not manage to get used (its frequency is in “a blue range“, but not in “red“, from where and the name). As a result on one disk of “a blue beam“ it is possible to write down 50 gigabytes of information. So that, my dear contemporaries, rest only dreams us …

the end and to the last stronghold of a magnetic film - to cassette dictophones Soon came. The compact - cartridges replaced other remarkable universal “digital“ carrier - so-called flash - memory . Among music lovers popularity of “flash cards“ was inseparably linked with distribution of the so-called “squeezed“ audioformats, the most known of which, certainly, is the MP3. Exactly the MP3 together with the Internet struck the most crushing blow to a purse of audiomagnates and again showed urgency of new approach to a problem of freedom of distribution of information and copyright.