How there was the first compact - a disk?
Technical progress in the sphere of an audio recording move with great strides. It would seem, still some 12 - 15 years ago a compact - disks seemed unattainable luxury, and profits on their sales were estimated in the astronomical sums. And today already there is a conversation on fast death of CD - the industry. About CD - revolutions and CD - evolutions will also go the further speech.
Attempts to write down audio - and video data with the help of a laser beam (an optical way of entry) were made in 1960 - e years by the most different people and the organizations. It is often specified that the first optical drive was presented in 1973 by Jim Russell. Then Russell showed the invention to the Sony and Philips companies. Those became interested, but negotiations with the scientist became farther than a message not. But in 1977 both companies cooperated also began to conduct development of a “digital“ optical format.
Originally optical disks intended for a video format. But these prototypes of future DVD left too bulky and expensive to mass production and could not compete with videotapes at that time. That the spent efforts were not in vain, developers decided to adapt an optical disk for an audio recording.
First “compacts“ - ALP (Audio long play) - were not compact and by inertia tried to imitate a phonograph record with a diameter of 30 cm However, unlike a vinyl longpleya (on which from two parties 45 min. a soundtrack could be located), on an optical disk it was possible “to roll up“ several tens hours of sounding. But what audiocampaign needs so “wasteful“ sound carriers?
Then the worker of Philips - Lu Otens - suggested to reduce the size and, respectively, a capacity of a disk, having limited sounding time hour. But here fans of classical music from Sony interfered. They made the offer to increase sounding time till 66 min. that the disk completely contained “The ninth symphony“ of Beethoven. As a result added (just in case) 8 more minutes, and the new audiocarrier was started in production.
Creation of an optical audiodisk - one of the first and striking examples of international cooperation. So Dutches from Philips developed process of production of disks, and Japanese from Sony offered the record method which is already tested by them on “digital“ tape recorders. Roughly speaking, one were engaged in “hard“, and others - “software“. The German company Bayer which developed for it optimum material - polycarbonate of macrobosoms also took part in creation of a disk.
And here in 1982 Sony and Philips presented to the world of Compact Disk Digital Audio (CD - DA or CD - Audio) . Versions of the name for the new sound carrier was offered a little, but won against the word “compact“ by analogy with madly popular at that time “a compact - cartridges“.
The standard (a stereo, 16 - bit word length, sampling frequency - 44,1 kHz, capacity - 650 MB of information or 74 minutes of sounding, diameter of a disk - 12 cm) was solemnly immortalized in the document called by “Red List“.
On presentation a compact - a disk “The Alpine symphony“ of Strauss was written down - on the example of an orkestrovannoyklassika best of all to show quality of sounding. However in mass production the first, of course, started the priest - performers - an album “Visitors“ of ABBA group and Billy Joel`s album “52nd Street“.
In 1983 in the market there were first CD players, and a year later already in “The orange book“ of Sony and Philips documented technology of record and data storage - CD - Rom. Then there were also first CDs - players.
Reaction of the population to the new sound carrier struck producers. In 1985 59 million a compact - disks - six times more were sold, than it was planned! The album “Brothers in Arms“ (1985) of DIRE STRAITS group became the first CD which circulation exceeded one million.
B the number of the issued names CD reached 1987 six thousand. Musicians began to pass in large quantities to a new format, and also to gradually transfer old records to “figure“. By the end of 1980 - x a compact - disks forced out vinyl, and to the middle of 1990 - x and a compact - cartridges. At us this process for obvious reasons was late for about five years (the last phonograph records are dated 1992).
It is interesting that records began to develop an optical way and in the Soviet Union in 1975. The organization with a solid abbreviation of VNIIRPA of Popov created the first BEAM Soviet optical player - 002 which it presented on ENEA in 1980 (on a demonstration disk music from to / f “My tender and gentle animal“ was written down). Unfortunately domestic development did not gain development from - for absence of base on production of semiconductor lasers (and gas lasers were too bulky).
About what the compact - a disk won hearts of listeners, we will talk next time.