Mustard: what its history?So habitual
and, one may say, spice, ordinary for us, as mustard, have the history. However, as well as all on the planet. But “mustard“ history has very deep roots. It was used as seasoning still by ancient Egyptians, grew up for many centuries before our era in India and in the Middle East and across all Asia. No wonder, Asia is the mustard homeland. However, there is an opinion that it concerns only black mustard, and white - it is from the Mediterranean.
According to the legend, Gautama Buddha to whom the heart-broken woman who lost the son and begging came to return it, ordered to return her to the native settlement and to collect on a mustard kernel from each family in which would not burn on a funeral fire at least one person. When it turned out that there is no such family, the woman understood that the death is an inevitable outcome for all living and accepted the life such as it is.
In the Cabbala a mustard seed - one of the main symbols of vital energy. In Christianity it represents the firmness of belief. In the Bible we can read that “small mustard grain... gives a huge tree...“ (and it is valid, in the southern countries height of a plant can reach one and a half meters), “if you have belief about mustard grain and will tell this mountain “pass from there“, and it will pass; and nothing will be impossible for you …“.
The sacred book of Muslims also did not do without metaphor of a mustard seed. According to the Koran, at a fulfillment of the Last Court almighty Allah will aggregate all human acts and will assign to Scales of Court. And sins human even if size about mustard grain, are weighed by a due measure and will be rewarded according to the deserts.
But we will return to secular history. Strewed with originally ground seeds of mustard food. Antique era opened curative properties of mustard, and Hippocrates, for example, described it as good expectorant and protivokashlevy means, and also means for improvement of appetite and normalization of digestion.
Other doctor, Dioskorides (the 1st century AD) recommended mustard plasters from long pains. In those days was considered also that mustard is useful to teeth and … to a mind enlightenment. Besides, it was appreciated ability “to warm“ an organism, to promote a normal current of periods, to calm irritations in intestines.
Greeks and Romans added mustard to the young not fermented wine which was called mustum ardum, and also applied to conservation. Roman legionaries extended it across Europe. The first written-down recipe of preparation of table mustard belongs to the 42nd year AD, his author is the Roman of Columella.
The curious fact “participations“ of mustard in military negotiations remained. So, once the Persian tsar Darius sent to Alexander of Macedon as a call a bag of seeds of sesame. The parcel had to hint the opponent at the infinite number of soldiers in army of Persians. But as the response message the small sack of seeds of mustard which had to “report“ that Alexander`s army, smaller on number, nevertheless, is much hotter in fight was sent to Darius.
In medieval monasteries monks - mustardarius which had to prepare mustard for the general meal, and later - and were quite often appointed to sale. Then and in Vatican the Father Ioann XXII entered a position of the mustard person - grand moutardier du Pape and which - where in Europe - and at the monarshesky yards.
In Germany in 1715 young Nicolai Ludvig von Zinzendorf based the Award of the Mustard Seed - the organization preaching Pietism. The Pietism is a mystical current in Protestantism (first of all, in Lutheranism) which put religious feeling above religious dogmas. And the population of Germany had a tradition to sew up to the bride in a veil a mustard sunflower seed to provide marriage durability.
Having found out that in the east mustard admitted strong aphrodisiac, Europeans began to use it for healing from female frigidity. However, applied a mustard seed and in the opposite purposes, namely, to etching of a fruit from a stomach of the pregnant woman.
In medicine mustard was used more and more widely. According to N. Kalpepper, the doctor and one of the first phytotherapists in Europe (17th century) wine broth of its seeds “resists to action of a poison, injuriousness of fly agarics and poison of snakes and other poisonous beings“. It used spicy seeds at treatment of patients for gout, rheumatism and radiculitis.
Mustard long was favourite spice in cookery of the European states. Then it was pressed by the Indian seasonings, and revival of former popularity took place thanks to the fact that in the 18th century mustard began to be crushed in flour and to sift, and also to flavor with additives. Especially masters from the French city of Dijon succeeded in it. By the beginning of the 19th century the local firm “Mull“ (Maille) let out 24 various grades, including with garlic, truffles, anchovies, a tarragon, white wine etc. In Tyyuksberi (England) made powder from slightly shredded seeds of spice, and for receiving table mustard added apple juice, cider or vinegar.
“Mustard“ history in Russia begins since 1765 when near Tsaritsyn, the pioneer settlement of the German colonists called in honor of the Syrian Zarephath mentioned in the Bible was founded on the river bank Sarpy. In several years from Germany Conrad Neytts - the translator, the doctor and the missionary moved there. It - that also based soon the mustard production which became well-known. Other name - the Russian was assigned to sareptsky mustard also over time.
In 1781 the agronomist A. T. Bolotov A. T. published the work “About a Beating of Mustard Oil and about Usefulness of It“, and in 1810 - m Johann Caspar Glich, the successor K. Neyttsa and his son-in-law, converted manual production in steam and became the supplier of the imperial yard. Import of mustard from England stopped, and Glich was granted from the emperor Alexander I a gold watch.
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History of popular spice proceeds. In Denmark, for example, to this day mustard seeds scatter on the house for luck and for protection against evil spirit. In our country was considered for a long time that if to attach seven dry kernels of mustard to clothes, then it will protect from damage and a malefice, besides will give clarity to mind and cheerfulness - to feelings.
In the USA on the first Saturday of August it is noted neither more, nor it is less as National Day of Mustard. In Maunt Horebe (the USA, the State of Wisconsin) the Museum of mustard in which 5 thousand exhibits from all states and 60 more countries of the world works. And even the college mustard is open there. Here what honor to mustard!