Women in the war. How it was?
“And thirty years,
I forty years will pass,
A to us from that winter not to get warm.
Us from it will tear off nothing.
We with it are merged by memory and heart“. records about war begin
With these lines of the poem of Yury Voronov. They are left in an old school notebook the grandmother of my husband. Called her Zoya Ivanovna Vasilyeva (Isakova in girlhood).
She told grandsons a little about war, did not love. Transferred only a small notebook. And in it three more leaves in a slanting ruler - records of her girlfriend - Agafonova (Kotelnikova`s) odnopolchanka of N. of their M
, the Ural little girls, spring of 1942 at the call of Komsomol sent to front . By then to all of them was for 18 - 20 years …
the Komsomol appeal
“The train went under a bias, on shooters strongly shook. The whistle was carried by an echo in the Ural Mountains. Doors of teplushka are open, in them young people, sometimes cheerful flash, but alarmed persons are more often. It was May, 1942 of 1200 girls - volunteers from Chelyabinsk, Zlatoust, Kurgan, Ufaley, Karabash, Magnitogorsk, Korkino, Miass, etc. cities of South Ural went in this echelon to the front.
How many years passed, I remember that in April, 1942 I and my friends wrote the application in a district committee of Komsomol: “From the member of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League of primary Komsomol organization of nickel plant. I ask to direct me the volunteer to the front. I want to be where it is more useful and more difficult. I am quite healthy. Such as I, in Ufaley then there was much. Statements of the first 47 volunteers - girls the district committee satisfied“. When war began
, over all country send a large number of women and girls to military registration and enlistment offices, wishing, on an equal basis with men to rise in defense of the Homeland. Many of them were deeply patriotic, brought up on revolutionary ideals, but even did not represent those burdens which to them will be presented by real war.
“It was heavy to say goodbye to our mothers. I have a father, the guerrilla of civil war, and 2 brothers were at the front. We at that time did not understand life moreover in the war yet“. It is quite probable
that many girls really voluntarily aspired on the front.
But the grandmother told once that all members of the Komsomol then just obliged to write applications. And to these words it is trusted more. In total - it is difficult to coordinate the words “ woman “ and “ war “.
According to help data in Red Army about 800 thousand women as voluntarily were at war, and at the call of. There were even purely female parts - antiaircraft, aviation. About 60% of medical staff in hospitals, 80% in divisions of communication and 50% in road troops made women.
the Meeting with wardirected the Echelon with the Ural girls to
to Severo - the Western front in troops of air defense.
In 1942 there was an urgent need to cover a number of railway stations from air firing. Through them there was a supply of the front with the food, the weapon and human resources. Germans struck massive bombing attacks to places of a congestion of echelons.
Therefore the Soviet command made the decision to urgently create a row zenitno - artillery parts for fight against aircraft of the opponent. They were based on stations of Bologoye, Peno, Soblago, Medvedevo, Ostankovo, Tsevel, Velikiye Luki, Novosokolniki, etc.
“left on May 5, 1942 Chelyabinsk, and on May 18 arrived to a terminal point - to the station of Bologoye. Here the proximity of the front was already felt, very often bombed. However, the first bombardment of the girl was transferred earlier - it happened in travel time on the front near Yaroslavl, on St. Buoy. But it was only the beginning. Ahead of them there is a lot more, bombardments …“
of the members of the Komsomol who Arrived from the Urals was defined in 256 - y separate zenitno - an artillery division which had to protect important railway junctions.
“The Art. of Bologoye was destroyed. Lodged us in the village of Ogryzkovo where our batteries were located... Bombed station at night. And we helped fighters to bring shells.
In the first fight the commander of machine-gun part and two Red Army men were killed …“
So girls met war.
They received regimentals only in several months. For now took the fighter`s course, the opponent still conducted investigation and bombed both at night, and in the afternoon. And it was necessary at the same time both to be trained in them and to be at war.
“Command was the Ural girls enough - because we could replace men in any business. All of us tested, studied everything, in a month took a course of the young fighter, an equipment of the weapon of any appointment. Crept on - plastoon. Learned to wind windings 42 sizes, two-meter with a set of boots“.
Here they, soldier`s boots and boots! It to surprise nobody with a ladies` leg of such size now, and then it was the tragedy for girls. All footwear in army began with size 40 .
But if it was the only problem.
“Well, there is nothing to hide, tested soldier`s louses. Ah, little girls, little girls - water was only in funnels from bombardments. Moreover that that from kitchen the cook slowly sometimes will give“. the military service and army life of steel for them a heartrending experience were ready
of the Girl to a feat, but.
Even it is difficult for man to adapt to military life after civil. To the woman all this it is worth accepting enormous moral and physical tension the hardest physical activities, army discipline, a bulky soldier`s form of the big size, lack of elementary household conveniences -.
The female essence by nature bears life . Therefore the woman`s duty in the war - to bear death - left a terrible print in souls of young girls.
“We, of course, did the part. Did not think of fear. Though God forbid to the woman to be a soldier. Through cruel tests on fronts and in the back the Victory remained for us.
We carried out the task set for us“. All of them sustained
, performed hard man`s work, buried girlfriends, saw death. And for the rest of life kept the hardest memory of that war. And still - always believed in the Victory and hoped to survive.
“In Chelyabinsk, having plunged into the echelon which arrived from the front in 23 cars Severo`s appointment - the Western front, we say goodbye to the Urals and we ask all to wait...“