Cherry ordinary. What its history? “ you Remember
how lindens smelled how the cherry orchard blossomed?. “ - the familiar melody of “Ladybug“ reaches from the cracked windows … In many songs, verses, plays, fairy tales and stories there was a place for wonderful cherry. This real recognition of truly national love which is not present at one actor or the deputy, the king or the president.
... There lived a big fan of fruit by the name of Pengerot once. He decided to part a garden, but the site got very bad. Planted apple-trees - did not get accustomed. Put pears - even worse. Landed plums - and those would die …
U of any on its place hands fell. But Pengerot made the last attempt - perhaps will carry. Also seated to the barren land cherry stones. Here the fate faced it! Cherries grew wonderfully well! Any of the guests coming to the cherry orchard could not believe that the soil is fruitless here.
History, of course, beautiful. But nevertheless and behind cherry leaving is necessary to receive good harvests.
Cherry Vladimir, ordinary , Cerasus vulgaris Mill., family Pink or Rozotsvetny (Rosaceae), subfamily plum (Prunoideae). The word “cherry“, most likely, is output from Greek “vissiviya“ and “âèññèâîñ“ that means “cherry“ or “crimson“. The name of the sort Cerasus (in Latin said as “öåðàçóñ“) happens from the city of Kerazund - one of ports on the coast of Asia Minor from where cherry was if to trust ancient texts of Pliniya, is brought to Rome by the consul Lukull - the Roman commander who subdued the Pontic tsar Mitridat Veliky in the 74th year B.C.
That times, far from us, separated of today more than twenty centuries sated with great and small events, destructive wars and wonderful inventions, emergence of unsurpassed works of art and opening Hugo`s areas - east coast of the Black Sea in Asia Minor which are considered to be as the homeland of cherry and sweet cherry now were a part of the Pontic kingdom.
So, it happened in the first century B.C. Later cherry got from Ancient Rome to other countries of Europe. In France it became widely known in the eighth century of our era. And in Kievan Rus` Yury Dolgorukiy, the Kiev prince was fond of cherry - it is his merit, emergence near Moscow of magnificent cherry orchards (speak, his son Andrey Bogolyubsky brought cherry from Suzdal and put a big garden in the ancestral lands - the village of Bogolyubovo; approximately at the same time cherry began to be grown up in Novgorod Veliky, soon it appeared at the Valdai monks on Lake Ladoga).
And now almost in all countries - successors of Kievan Rus` “vishnev_ sadochka“ - obligatory attribute of a rural landscape. Our many people just do not think of the house without an environment of graceful cherry trees. By the way, not only ours: in Japan the well-known decorative cherries became a subject of the real worship of local population long ago, blossoming them is noted in Japan as a national holiday.
In the nature there are transformations of stamens into petals from time to time - biologists call such deviations from normal development uglinesses, or terata, and process of their education - teratogenezy. But many similar deviations are how beautiful! Metamorphoses of stamens were resulted by decorative Japanese cherries, just and characterized by a makhrovost of flowers.
In a wild state cherry ordinary is unknown. It seems that the wild inhabitant of the steppe cherry shrubby - Cerasus fruticosa took active part in its origin (Pall.) G. Woron., representing a spherical bush about a meter height (more precisely, from 0,2 to 2 meters), winter-hardy and drought-resistant. The best forms of wild-growing shrubby cherry are entered into culture long ago and became, so to speak, object of national selection. Also. V. Michurin used shrubby cherry at removal of a frost-resistant grade “Fertile Michurina“ and many other grades.
Actually, cherry Vladimir is too only a grade of cherry ordinary, but a grade most, perhaps, known and useful at the same time. Cherry ordinary - a tree about three meters high or is slightly more (old copies 7 - 8 meters high seldom meet), with almost spherical krone. The trunk is covered with dark bark and - a characteristic sign - the exfoliating ring crust.
Flowers settle down on long (2 - 4 cm) pedicels, are collected in umbrella-shaped inflorescences on 2 - 4 flowers, blossom in April - May along with leaves or slightly earlier, than they. Fruits spherical or splusnuto spherical juicy stone fruit, 12 - 15 mm in the diameter (in fruits - seeds of spherical shape, on one in each juicy balsa), coloring of a thin skin can be and light-red and dark-red.
So, cherry ordinary is known only in culture. Cultivated and places the run wild cherry meets almost across all moderate and subtropical Eurasia, America, it can be met in Australia, Africa and Tasmania. As for Europe, especially there is a lot of cherry in Italy, Germany, and in the territory of the United States “percussions“ in this regard are California, Wisconsin, Oregon and Michigan.
On nature of economic use of a grade of cherry it is possible to divide on dessert, table and technical. Dessert grades possess that is reflected in the name, excellent tastes, fruits of these cherries (a grade “Hydrangea“, “English early“, “Kentish“) are consumed usually fresh. To us not less tasty table grades - “Vladimir“ (which sometimes allocate in separate “look“), “Lotovka“ and “Beauty of the North“ are better known. Among technical the most known grades - “An early morello“ and “Lyubskaya“, quite sour on taste. There is still a quite good grade of “Rastunya“, a grade of “Griot Pobeda“, “Griot Ostgeymsky“, “Black-fruited Chistyakova“ and a great number of others.
Speaking about a high-quality variety of cherry, it is necessary to mention the Central Asian inhabitant - to cherry warty with the Turkestan Range. She grows on dry slopes, it is capable to endure, apparently, any, the most terrible, a drought. Height - about a potato bush. A form compact - a pillow a pillow. Here also cherry “pillows“ on the heated stones under the hot southern sun creep. In mountains such form is very favorable - during a heat in “pillow“ more cool, than outside. And in cold, at night - respectively, more warmly, day sunshine as if are late here for the night. The world. The microclimate. Plodiki small as if it is not cherry, but cowberry. But turned sour - sweet, color, usual for cherry.
Aksakals still tell that once, in former times, warty cherry was less. It expanded when people, on an old habit transforming everything around itself, cut down large a tree - to Arch and maples. Probably, it is one of the most rare exceptions when consequences of anthropogenous impact on the nature have also positive aspect. By the way, the Turkistan gardeners warty love cherry for the fact that on it it is possible to impart good grades. Fruits on a scion same tasty as on a cultural plant, and the garden does not get littered with young growth around - agree, big plus - a wild stock does not give root offsprings as usual sour cherry. This sign also does not allow to rank warty cherry as number of ancestors of cultivars.
On dry stony slopes and in the light woods of the Crimea and the Western Forest-steppe (in Ukraine) sometimes we can meet other relative of acquaintances already of cherries - a magalebka, or cherry to an antipk , Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill. Even less often the antipka meets in Prikarpatye (in the Chernivtsi region), but is often cultivated, is even used in the decorative purposes. It is slightly higher than some cherry ordinary, but, of course, there will be less sweet cherry.
Coming back to conversation on an origin of cultural cherry, it should be noted that, most likely, she “was born“ several millennia ago from crossing of steppe (shrubby) cherry and other plant, “given to a dowry“ to cultural successors rather high trunk - sweet cherries. It the origin of cultural cherry is represented today. Though hardly the secret cover sometime completely will slide off its past.