How the telerating is measured? Small secrets big (and not really) ratings of
the Most profitable around the world - ratings of television. Main customers of rating researches are not only TV channels, but also advertizing agencies which are engaged in advertizing. For advertisers it is very important to know what channel and in what time watches the greatest number of the audience. TV channels, in turn, are interested in the highest places of a rating as it will at once be reflected in their income. (For doubting: higher the income - more qualitative “picture“.)
Ratings measure peoplemeters - so cynically call devices which are installed in TVs and read out necessary information. You should not perceive this word as a curse or a personal insult, just in Russian there was no graceful verbal design for designation of these devices.
So, peoplemeters consist of three parts:
1. The frequency detector - small, the size about a matchbox, the device which is mounted in the TV. Its function - to distinguish what TV channel is watched in a family and to send information to the measuring instrument.
2. The remote control defines which of members of household watches TV. On the panel there are 8 buttons, each of them is assigned to one family member. For example, the button 1 - the head of the family, 2 - the housewife, 3 - the senior child, etc. Everyone needs to press the button when it begins viewing and to release when finishes. About why the button 1 - the head of the family, 2 - the housewife, but not business - the lady, I will tell a bit later.
3. The measuring instrument is put on the TV, by the sizes he reminds an electronic alarm clock, on it there is a small display. When the TV is turned on, on the display begin to flash number from 1 to 8, reminding family members of their buttons. The attendee when viewing the TV presses the button, and it lights up on the display. For example, if at any moment family members to whom figures 1, 3 and 5 are assigned watch TV and pressed the buttons, on the display of the measuring instrument the corresponding numbers will be lit. Besides, when the TV is switched to other canal, and also through certain time on the screen the question appears: “Same people?“ People have to repeat pressing to confirm - they are “same“.
The measuring instrument - quite difficult device. It has the timer which fixes the periods when the TV is turned on or switched off. The data obtained from the detector of frequency and the panel unite with data of the timer. The measuring instrument writes down viewing time, the channel which was watched, and the viewer. This information can be saved in memory seven days. The measuring instrument is connected to a telephone network via the modem or to the allocated network. Every night the computer installed at the central office of the company “rings round“ apartments and removes information, after that data in the Measuring instrument are erased. This process continues with two to five o`clock in the morning. Removal of data happens silently therefore a family foreign sounds do not disturb. And if it was not succeeded “to phone“, process will repeat the next night.
Information on demographic characteristics of participants of measurement of a rating is stored in the central computer. Individual number is assigned to each of them, it is the personal code. For example, it is known that the person to whom number 2v35n0056 is assigned is the woman, the housewife at the age of 35 years, with the higher education, does not work, or 1v48r7015 - the man, 48 years, the higher education, works, the main getter in a family, i.e. is conditional - the Head of the family if the code looks as 1v48r6018 is a woman with similar data, 3n21n0124 - the senior child in a family, male, incomplete higher education, 21 years, does not work. Thus, for every minute it is possible to define characteristics of people who watch any channel.
To define a rating program, it is necessary to know when it was broadcast on a certain channel. For this purpose every day for 24 hours broadcast of TV channels registers in the information carrier in the mode a time - codes - that is when viewing it is possible to see time. On the received records monitoring of television is made. The inheriting day this information joins constant ratings. Thus, already next day in 14. 00 it is possible to estimate behavior of the audience when viewing the transfers or advertizing blocks broadcast the day before. And at the same time to analyse why the viewer in the 8th minute of a monologue very clever, but a little boring the top - the manager of the largest corporation suddenly began to switch, for example, to broadcast of events in a zoo of Madagascar or, holy Christ! - on the commercial with crowd of beauties in bikini?
A constant rating for editors of all colors and calibers, the main question: why we did not begin to be watched with 7 on 12 and from 19 to 26 minutes and at the expense of what in the 28th minute suddenly there was a mass notice on our release? How many people watched our announcement to the end? Whether not too it is aggressive, tightened, neytiralen, skushen, is ordinary? However, we will return to equipment.
The raw data which are taken off from peoplemeters have the following appearance: the family member to whom number 2v35n00564 of the beginnings answers to look - 1K in 21. 30, switched to P2 in 22. 22 also switched off the TV in 22. 32. Non-standard messages are transferred by the software to a certain terminology.
One of such terms - “zero viewing“ . It means that the family did not watch TV during the day. But if it repeats for the next three days, the personnel of the company ring this family to check whether all as it should be with the peoplemeter and to find out the reasons for which the family did not watch TV (were on holiday, for example).
The second term - “lazy viewing“ . Means that though the TV and was switched on, none of the audience pressed the button. In this case the family is also called and find out the reason. When laziness is the reason, in research remind of responsibility. If it repeats, then the peoplemeter is withdrawn and established in other family with similar socially - demographic characteristics. Yes, by the way, installation of the peoplemeter in a family is paid. Each of full age family members gets paid - a small reward for the fact that he helps to count a rating. With a family the contract under which family members are obliged to use the peoplemeter when viewing the TV is signed.
It is checked also whether correctly family members use the peoplemeter. This type of control is called “check of coincidence“. Every week arbitrarily 10 families are chosen, they are called at different times and ask who and what channel looks at present. The received answers are compared to piplmetrichesky data. The most responsible families at the end of the registration period (as a rule, it is 1 year) receive gifts which can choose from the catalog. The average size of a gift - 50 - 100 c.u. a year.
Who participates in these researches and how families , statistically each person who presses the peoplemeter button are chosen, represents up to one thousand TV viewers?
Conditionally Russia is divided into 8 statistical regions, in everyone quantity living approximately equally. The quantity is determined by data of population census and base of constituencies and sites. Data check, questioning families, and on the basis of answers form socially - a demographic picture which in details informs on characteristics of the people living in this territory.
The choice of families happens on system of casual selection. Representatives of the company lead discussion with the chosen families, interrogate them under a certain questionnaire. All family members have to confirm a consent to participate in research. At the same time full anonymity is guaranteed to them and speaks that participation in research is important for definition of audience of telecasts. The family also has an opportunity to be convinced that equipment which is used for measurement is harmless not only for to health of family members, but also to the TV.
Only full families where one of family members does not work (category of housewives) are suitable for participation in measurement of ratings and there are not less than 2 children. The social status of a family can vary: from provided families to families with low prosperity. The quantity of families in each social category is identical within a statistical error (to 1 - 2%), as well as the number of persons with the higher education, average, technical, etc.
Thus, daily each channel receives the report on the one who and that looked.