Gold: history and present. Where we will put test?
Ancient called gold Sun metal, and silver - Moon metal. To Great geographical discoveries people spoke about the far-away country of El Dorado where gold was everywhere. Most likely, it was the dream, light and unrealizable.
When Spaniards and Portuguese intruded in the territory of the states of the Maya, Aztecs and Inca, they were struck: they did not see such quantity of gold jewelry and objects in temples yet. I think, then they also solved - is found El Dorado. Within decades towards Europe there were ships loaded with gold. However, strangely enough, happiness with it was not! A large number led to depreciation of this metal, and then to the strongest economic crises. Spain and Portugal trembled and lost not only gold, but also former power.
In 18 - 19 centuries gold began to be extracted in the industrial way. At this particular time also the “gold“ statistics appeared. So, for example, at the beginning of the 19th century in California extracted 3 thousand poods a year, in Australia - 11 thousand, and in Russia - only 1,5 thousand poods. The fields were found, and the gold-rush covered thousands of people. Tramps - gold miners hung around worldwide, and their thoughts were occupied only by one: to find, get, steal … What to say yes.
the first gold found Gold of Russia
In our country in the Urals. There was it in 1744 on Beryozovsky gold mines. At first here extracted 1 pood of gold a year, then - 22 poods. In a year gold was found in the Arkhangelsk province, then - in Altai. The empress declared gold monopoly of treasury, and the Russian citizens right there lost interest in the gold miner`s profession.
In 1824 the emperor Alexander I visited one of the Ural mines and “is absolutely casual“ found a nugget weighing 10,124 kg. The sovereign was surprised and in this case devoted to gold mining several hours of the time. Staying in a joyful condition of spirit, Alexander I allowed to extract gold to all Russian citizens without exception.
What began here! For several years mines in Yeniseisk, Nerchinsk districts opened, earned the mines in Yakutia. The result was unprecedented: several decades later Russia began to extract 2200 poods of gold annually, and these are about 35 tons. In “a gold rating“ our country took the 3rd place after the USA (46 t) and Australia (43 t).
Proceeding from reasons of healthy patriotism, it is necessary to add that in 1842 we came out on top on one of “gold“ indicators. Also the simple Ural worker Nikifor Syutkin possessed this record. It also found the biggest nugget in the world is powerful even in 36 kg! Subsequently the record was broken: in Australia weighing 285 kg found gold supergiant (“Holterman`s Plate“).
Gold cost during 1870 - 1897 was 3,55 - 3,67 rubles for a zolotnik (a zolotnik - the Russian measure of weight, 4,266 g).
The decree established on January 3, 1897 stamping of imperials and semi-imperials with designation on them 15 rubles and 7,5 rubles. Gold coins began to correspond to the price determined for an exchange for bank notes, and ruble became freely convertible currency. With rubles in a pocket it was possible to go to any resort of Europe and as necessary to change them in any bank at the course attached to gold.
Gold - the first of the metals discovered by the person. Content of gold in alloys express breakdown. So, for example, 553 - I test means: 1 gram of an alloy contains 553 mg of pure gold.
In Russia extract now about 100 tons of gold which 77% go not to gold reserves, and for needs of electronics, jewelers and manufacturers of dentures.
Should notice Gold in coins that at first coins minted from Electra - a natural alloy of gold and silver. Then began to use copper, iron, zinc, nickel, aluminum and their alloys. However always and everywhere gold remained the most priority metal. As I already mentioned, to the middle we had no 18th century of the gold, and coins minted from imported metal. At Pyotr began to mint the first gold coins - 2 rubles, then appeared gold chervonets and silver medals. Till the 20th century in Russia minted gold and silver coins of 5, 10 and 15 rubles (imperial), and also 7,5 rubles (semi-imperial).
In the USSR from 1921 to 1931 minted fifty-kopeck pieces where on a herd it was written: “Pure silver of 9 grams“. Till 1926 small coins produced from pure copper, then from the alloy close to bronze. In Soviet period the trifle could serve as weights as the five-copeck coin weighed 5 g, 3 kopeks - 3 g, a two-room flat - 2 g, 1 kopek - 1 g
gold coins are minted Now only for collectors, and the coin “Kryugerrand“ which is let out in the Republic of South Africa and not having the face value since its price is defined by supply and demand is considered the most known in the world.
They say that:
at the time of the Soviet Union in Russia extracted about 200 tons of gold annually.
at the time of Stalin the gold reserves of Russia made 2400 tons, and at the end of Gorbachev`s government in treasury there were about 100 tons.
the largest gold reserves at the end of 20 - go were centuries at the USA - 3600 tons, further on this indicator there was Germany - 3000 tons.
20 tons of gold of imperial Russia were transported by officers of army of Kolchak to Japan and left there on storage.
Gold of an imperial family in number of 7 tons still lies in one of the London banks.
CPSU Gold was not found.
Now at the world auction 1 ounce of gold (about 29 grams) costs about 1523 dollars (June, 2011)