Deserts in Russia: near future or already reality?
on June 17 - the World day on fight against desertification and a drought. Date is celebrated in calendars since 1995 since it was established on 49 sessions of the United Nations General Assembly. It would seem, to Russia, with its not southern climate how the problem of the world community can belong? How problems of deserts of type of the Sahara in North Africa, Australia, Mexico and the USA can concern us, at last? On the contrary, began to think of the approaching sand promptly winning the Russian territories still yesterday of fertile lands more than hundred years ago: at the end of the nineteenth - the beginning of the twentieth century.
To what we came at the beginning of the century of the twenty first?
are Terrified by official data. In the country with the huge territory processes of desertification mentioned about 100 million hectares (46,8%) of the farmland. I.e. potentially it is already in a varying degree the desert. However, our desert differs from so-called southern deserts a little, but is not less dangerous.
In a zone of risk and disaster generally the South of Russia: Astrakhan, Volgograd regions, Dagestan, Kalmykia. Territories of the Rostov region, Krasnodar Krai, Povolzhsko - the Ural region, the South of Siberia, Buryatia are anyway affected.
As appeared deserts in the territory of the Russian Federation?
Yes, yes, you correctly thought: the person is guilty of everything. Its unreasonable activity (a cattle repasture, plowing of soils, salinization from the wrong irrigation) together with natural dryness and instability of the top layer of earth turned once green landscapes into a poor yellow background of barkhans.
What becomes that sand did not come?by
from the nineteenth century when scientists paid attention to a problem of desertification of territories, measures for fixing of soils began to be developed. For this purpose, speaking to the modern language, the principles of environmental policy were developed: unstable lands were forbidden to be used; in the territories subject to desertification, forest shelter belts landed; ways of an irrigation of agricultural grounds were partially reconsidered. As a matter of fact, on it and all.
For the twentieth century we did not promote further if not to tell, on the contrary, aggravated a situation. What was put for prevention of distribution of sand according to the head Lesnoy of the Greenpeace program in Russia of Alexey Yaroshenko, is destroyed by cutting down and the fires almost half. Phytomelioration is carried out in the volumes insufficient for achievement of essential results, it is impossible to find distinct data on the number of the improved solonetzic soils, education and information support of local population are practically not carried out. We slowly move to environmental disaster which will concern each inhabitant: not to avoid losses of health, an income level, absence of food security …
For federal support by the state adopted the federal target program existing since 2006 for the period till 2012. However volumes of afforestation it is insignificant are small and do not cover destruction scales. It is necessary to reconsider urgently both policy of financing, and a measure of counteraction to desertification, and mentality of the population. Otherwise that day when our descendants learn what is steppes is near, without traveling, and on pictures and old photos. But they will never be able to give a unique steppe smell of freedom...
Remember, desertification - the global problem of the twenty first century concerning everyone!