Why Moscow - the third Rome?
Russians by right can be proud of the capital. Expression “Moscow - the third Rome“ became winged. And meanwhile people often ask a question: so why Moscow is called by the third Rome? That to understand it, it is necessary to address history.
Falling of Romegained ground
Christianity in Ancient Rome. The state it was considered eternal and invincible. And when in 313 this religion was officially recognized in Rome, instead of one sovereign there were two - secular and spiritual. And the empire called Christian now and recognized as reflection of the Kingdom of Heaven on the earth. But, as we know, nothing is eternal.
So, outside 410. The western Roman Empire hardly constrains invasion of barbarians. Gotha, headed by the leader Alarikh, approached gate of the Eternal city and besieged it. To Romans shameful conditions are set: they have to give all the property, slaves, gold in exchange for … Life. And though the citizens weakened by hunger and diseases are already ready to give up, to the leader soon bothered to wait. The city was taken, ruined and half destroyed. Greatness and glory of the Roman state which was considered as the main stronghold of Christianity cracked.
In 455 Rome was taken again. This time vandals. Invasion was destructive and cruel and so shook Romans that became one of the most bloody pages in the history of the ancient city.
The next two decades the country was in an agony. It was not capable to protect the inhabitants any more and became defenseless before enemies. At last, in 476 there was a Falling of the Western Rome. The sacred Roman Empire - guarantee of firmness of the Christian world, the representative of a true kingdom on the earth, fell.
during division of Great Rome into the Western and East empires in 395 split happened also in church. Opposition of the orthodox East and Latin West began. After crash of the Western Roman Empire, Byzantium became the lawful historical, cultural and civilization successor of Great Rome. As the chief representatives of Christian church considered Constantinople patriarchs now. From now on Constantinople became the world center of Christianity.
However, ten centuries of existence later, there came the decline and this power. Crash of the Byzantine empire took place in 1453 after capture of Constantinople by Turks - Ottomans headed by the sultan Mekhmed II.
“Two Rome fell, and the third costs, and to the fourth not to be“ . It is a fragment from the letter of the aged man Filofey of the Pskov Eleazarov of the monastery, formally addressed to the grand-ducal clerk Mikhail Misyur, however actually intending for the prince Vasily III. According to the theory, most popular in the historical science, stated in V. S. Ikonnikov`s works, thought that Moscow is the third Rome it was for the first time stated in Filofey`s messages.
Idea “Moscow - the III Rome“ was very close to Russia which was considered as the successor of Byzantium. It became the main political concept of the Russian state of the XV-XVI century. Process of formation of new ideology is followed by acceptance of a title of the tsar by Ivan the Terrible, and later - ascension of the Russian Church on Patriarchate degree. New ideas of a role and value of Russia soon became a semantic basis socially - political aspirations of ruling elite of the Russian state. The people believed in spiritual invincibility of Russia and therefore it was called the Saint. Assigned important mission to Sacred Russia: to keep orthodox belief and to protect it from encroachments of enemies.
It is necessary to tell that successors of Constantinople in the 14th century also Bulgaria and Serbia declared themselves. Benito Mussolini called by the Third Rome fascist Italy. However today this rank belongs to beautiful Moscow.
Whether the fourth Rome is fated to appear? In total in your hands, Russians!