OUN on service of Hitlerite Germany. Really it is our heroes?
“The historical chronicle the one to whom the present“ is important Goethe
Cooperation of the Ukrainian nationalists with the German intelligence agencies conducts the history with the beginning 30 - x years. The head of the German department of the Ukrainian Military Organization (UMO) Richard Jary came into contacts with the head of SA Ernst Ram and Adolf Hitler. Jary pursued the aim of creation and training of the militarized divisions from among the Ukrainian emigrants. In 1933 between it and Ram the agreement according to which to young fighters of UVO - OUN were given opportunities for military training at the SA bases in Germany was reached.
Is interesting to give, in this regard, here excerpts from shorthand reports of interrogations of the high-ranking staff of the German intelligence agencies:
1. From the shorthand report of interrogation byvsh. the head of department Abver - 2 colonels Stoltz of Ervin on May 29, 1945
... We enlisted the head of the Ukrainian nationalist movement colonel of petlyurovsky army Evgen Konovalets through whom in the territory of bourgeois Poland and the western areas of Ukraine acts of terrorism, diversions, and in certain places &ndash were carried out; small revolts...
at the beginning of 1938 I personally received instructions from the chief of military investigation admiral Kanaris on switching of the available agency from among the Ukrainian nationalists for direct work against the Soviet Union. After a while on the apartment of the petlyurovsky general Kurmanovich I carried out a meeting with Konovalts to whom transferred Kanaris`s instructions... Konovalets willingly agreed to switch by
part of an ounovsky underground directly against the Soviet Union. Soon the colonel Konovalets was killed. OUN was headed by Andrey Melnik whom, as well as Konovalts, we involved in cooperation with the German intelligence. In work of the colonel Konovalts as our agent for preservation of conditions of conspiracy the Ukrainian nationalist, the captain of the petlyurovsky Ardent army who was used as the agent - a svyaznik between us and Konovalts, and the last &ndash was enlisted according to its recommendation; as coherent with a nationalist underground.
during lifetime of Konovaltsa Yary was known to Melnik and other nationalist leaders as the person close to Konovaltsu and as the active nationalist therefore Kanaris charged to the chief 2 - go Abver`s department to the colonel Lakhuzen through Jary to contact Melnik who moved from Poland to Germany by this time. Thus, at the end of 1938 to Lakhuzen the meeting with Melnik during which he was enlisted was organized. As to work with Melnik as the agent of the German intelligence it was entrusted to me, I was also present during his recruitment. Has to tell that recruitment took place very quietly as, in fact, Melnik was an agent Konovaltsa in the carried-out work against Poles on the period of its residence in Poland, and we knew about Melnik`s activity enough.
After the recruitment which took place on the secret apartment (a corner of Berlinershtrasse and Fridrikhshtrasse) which holder was the officer Knyusman - the authorized representative of Kanaris, Melnik stated the plan of subversive activities. In a plan basis Melnik put establishing communications of the Ukrainian nationalists living in the territory of Poland of that time with nationalist elements in the territory of the Soviet Ukraine, carrying out espionage and diversions in the territory of the USSR, revolt preparation. Then at the request of Melnik Abver undertook all expenses necessary for the organization of subversive activities.
At the subsequent meetings Melnik asked to authorize creation at OUN of department of investigation. He claimed that creation of such department stirs up subversive activities against the USSR, will facilitate its communication with an ounovsky underground, and also with me, as with Abver`s employee. Melnik`s proposal was approved. Such department was created in Berlin headed by the petlyurovsky colonel Roman Sushko.
After defeat and capture of Poland Germany strenuously prepared for war against the Soviet Union therefore Abver took through Melnik measures for activization of subversive activities against the Soviet state. However these measures were insufficient. Stepan of Bander, one of leaders of OUN released by Germans from the Polish prison where it contained for participation in an act of terrorism against the minister of Poland Peratsky was for this purpose enlisted. Who hired to Bander, I do not remember, but I worked with him... At the beginning of 1940 we knew of friction between our agents Melnik and Bandera who lead to split in the ranks of OUN.
With attack of Germany on the Soviet Union of Bander won round active part of the Ukrainian nationalists and, in fact, forced out Melnik from the management. The aggravation between Melnik and Bandera reached a limit.
In August of 1941 Mr. Bander was arrested and contained us at the dacha in the suburb of Berlin under house arrest. Arrest was served by the fact that he in 1940, having received from Abver a large sum of money for financing of an ounovsky underground and the organization of intelligence activities against the Soviet Union, tried to appropriate them and transferred to one of the Swiss banks. This money was withdrawn by us from bank and again is returned Bander. The similar fact took place and with Melnik...
As were used the Ukrainian nationalists in fight against the guerrilla movement and a party underground in Ukraine occupied by Germans and what management in it was Abvera?
Abver actively used the Ukrainian nationalists during all war with the Soviet Union. Groups for fight against the Soviet guerrillas were formed of their number, the agency for a zabroska for a front line for the purpose of espionage, diversions and terror was got...
during retreat of the German troops from Ukraine Kanaris personally instructed in creation of the nationalist armed groups for continuation of fight against the Soviet power, carrying out terror, diversions and espionage. Especially for the management of ounovsky groups we left in the back official employees of Abver and the agency...
From these indications it is visible that OUN began to cooperate with Hitlerites against the Soviet Union since 1938, even prior to World War II and inclusion of the Western Ukraine in the USSR. Thus, statements of modern “historians“ that actions of OUN against the Soviet power were the answer to policy of the USSR in the Western Ukraine - lie as began earlier. Most likely, on the contrary, rigid actions of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs were provoked by ounovsky saboteurs - what tried to obtain intelligence agency of Germany, for destabilization of a situation and accumulation of discontent with the authorities in power population.
2. From testimonies of the colonel Muller Siegfried
on September 19, 1945
... In 1940, during my work in 4 - m department of Gestapo of Head Department of Imperial Safety, one of leaders of OUN - Melnik - visited the chief 4 - go Shroyder`s department in his office of Gestapo where received necessary instructions on work. I often saw Melnik within the walls of Gestapo... I passed
In November, 1940 to work in Abver where learned that Melnik, except communication with Gestapo, works in the German military intelligence. He was resident Abvershtelle “Berlin“. I know about it as I itself worked as the reviewer on investigation against the USSR in ACT “Berlin“. Together with me in one office the captain Pulluy who had Melnik on personal communication and presented it intelligence information about the Soviet Union worked. Melnik received all espionage data from the Ukrainian nationalists in the Western Ukraine, and also from the residency in. New Zol (Czechoslovakia). In affairs of Pulluya I saw the personal obligation of Melnik about cooperation with ACT “Berlin“ with the appendix of its photo. Pulluy worked with Melnik under the pseudonym “Doctor Pukhert“. I was recalled by
In October, 1944 from Abverkomanda - 304 to Abverkomanda - 202, deployed at that time in Krakow. In department of units of the General Staff of the German army I obtained full information on the martial law on a site of the central group of troops of the German army and the taking place negotiations with the Ukrainian nationalists on joint fight against Red Army. the Captain Kirn told
to me that in August, 1944. he passed a front line and conducted negotiations with heads of the southern staff of unitary enterprise deployed then in is mountain - the woody district near Lviv.
Command of UPA agreed to the captain Kirn to carrying out blasting work, joint with the German intelligence, in the back of Red Army, but in return set the following conditions:
- the German authorities have to release from - under house Stepan`s arrest to Bander and all Ukrainian nationalists who are in the German camps;
- Germany guarantees creation of “the independent Ukrainian state“;
- the German army provides groups of UPA with regimentals, arms, means of communication, medicines and money;
- the German reconnaissance bodies have to create diversionary schools and conduct training of the allocated OUN of persons of a radio communication and military preparation;
- the OUN diversionary groups will submit to Abverkomanda - 202 in the operational relation, and for the rest submit and remain under the authority of a staff of UPA.
Having appropriate authority, Kirn accepted conditions of leaders of UPA and in return set conditions of the German command and Abver`s guide before UPA. They were as follows:
- the southern staff of UPA makes available to Abverkomanda - the 202nd such number of saboteurs as it considers necessary Abverkomanda`s command - 202;
- the right of completing of diversionary groups of these faces of Abverkomand - 202 reserves. It defines the place and objects for diversions;
- the staff of UPA provides Abverkomande - 202 all the espionage data on Red Army which are available for it, and also information on the general activity of OUN in the back of the Soviet troops, on a site of the southern group of troops of the German army, i.e. on a site from Warsaw to the Romanian border.
the Staff of UPA agreed with these conditions. The decision on an exchange of representatives for communication between Abverkomanda - 202 and a staff of UPA was made. - 202 in a staff of Kirn Unitary Enterprise suggested to occupy a position of the officer of communication from Abverkomanda to me. - 202 professor Danyliv by nickname the Eagle was appointed the representative of UPA in Abverkomanda (not precisely) about 43 years, the average height, a dense constitution, the brunette, was fluent in German, earlier allegedly worked as the teacher of philosophy of the Lviv university. It allegedly had a rank of &ndash Unitary Enterprise; colonel.
It assisted Abverkomanda`s command - 202 in recruitment, training and completing of diversionary groups of the Ukrainian nationalists and their transfer to the back of Red Army for commission of diversions. At the beginning of December, 1944 to Krakow there arrived Stepan of Bander who received giving near Berlin from department 4D of Gestapo by then and worked under the leadership of the chief of this department of an obershturmbanfyurer Wolf. Bander was personally instructed by Danyliva, and also the agency prepared by him for a zabroska in UPA. Thus, the diversionary work which is carried out by OUN in the back of Red Army was carried out at a full consent of Bandera and under the direction of the German intelligence.
at the disposal of Abverkomanda - 202 was available 5 prospecting schools. One, the school run by me under a code name of “Moltke“, up to April, 1945 prepared shots of saboteurs only from among the Ukrainian nationalists. Recruitment of saboteurs was made by Danyliv together with Abverkomanda`s officers - 202.
Besides, abverotryad - 206, being Abverkomanda`s part - 202, had a direct connection through a front line with groups of UPA in the Carpathians. We scooped an agency from these groups, trained it at the short-term schools, and then threw in the back of Red Army.
before capitulation of Germany at the diversionary school “Moltke“ run by me was trained in recent months 45 saboteurs from among the Ukrainian nationalists. 25 people from them were sent to school by a staff of UPA from the territory occupied with parts of Red Army, the others were enlisted in prisoner-of-war camps.
Due to the coming crash of Germany I, having carried out a zabroska of the last group, on April 21, 1945 passed in Prague to illegal status more into Abverkomanda - 202 was not. I do not know of destiny and further actions of group of Kirn.
However is known to me that leaders of OUN took measures to establishment of connection with command English - the American troops. Danyliv and Burlay had the indication of a staff of UPA to pass through a front line to English - to the American troops, to inform them on desire of the Ukrainian nationalists to contact the subversive activities in the territory of Ukraine to command English - the American troops. The part of group had to accompany Burlaya to Americans. Danyliv intended to run to allies together with Bandera. Knowing that I know English also French languages, Burlay suggested me to join its group and to pass together to Americans.
at the beginning of April, 1945 according to the indication of Head Department of Imperial Safety of Bander with other leaders of OUN created group from the Ukrainian nationalists for protection of Berlin against the coming Red Army. Itself of Bander left the giving provided to him by Gestapo near Berlin and ran to Weimar. Burlay told me that Bander agreed with Danylivy about joint transition to the party of Americans...
Creation of legions and teams of the Ukrainian nationalists.
The training centers for the Ukrainian emigrants on the lake Himzy under Berlin - Tegel and in Kventsguta near Brandenburg for preparation of “the fifth column“ on a case of the beginning of military operations against Poland and the USSR were created in 1938.
of 250 Ukrainian volunteers passed special training in uchebno - training camp near Dakhshtayn in 1939.
In anticipation of military operations Abver started arms of OUN groups in the Soviet territory, transporting them the weapon through border.
One of the first Ukrainian formations of Abver was a so-called “Legion of the colonel Roman Sushk“ or “Viyskoviy Viddil Natsionalistiv“, in the German documents it appeared as “Bergbauernhilfe“ (VVN). It was well armed group of members of OUN (A. Melnik), numbering 200 people. The group was formed in Germany (Gammerstein) for maintaining diversionno - intelligence activities in the back of the Polish army in the first days of attack of Germany on Poland. The legion was created from the members ONDCS (Organization of National Defense of Carpathian Sechi) who were in time to smell gunpowder in fight for independence of it nobody the recognized state. The legion consisted of two companies of three - platoon structure. Recruits had mountain and landing training in the Alps. In addition the course included topography, conspiracy, diversionary and drill. A staff - the apartment of a legion was located in of Breslau, and training center in m to Zaubersdorfa (Austria). The staff was dressed in a uniform of Wehrmacht without signs of distinction and armed with submachine guns. The legion had the division of motorcyclists.
In August, 1939 legionaries were billeted on border with Poland, but the German command decided not to engage them to action with the Polish parts. On September 1, 1939 the order of the major von Demmel (the chief of a staff of ACT “Krakow“) the legion was reformed in “Industrial protection“ (“Werkschutz“) - the formation bearing security service of industrial facilities in Poland. In “Verkshuttsa“ legionaries had military training and were considered by the management of OUN (Miller) as a basis for expansion in the future of national military divisions.
the Most prepared and devoted OUN legionaries were then a part of the Teams of the Ukrainian Nationalists (TUN) “Roland“ (“Rolland“) and “Nakhtigal“ (“Nachtigal“ - “Nightingale“).
In March, 1940 the management of OUN, by order of Abver, sends diversionary groups to Lviv and Volhynia for the organization sabotage and civil disobedience actions from which most part is neutralized by People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs.
the Set of recruits in DUNY made S. Bandera`s OUN. The first battalion received the code name “Organization “ Roland ““, the second battalion was called “special forces “Nakhtigal ““, since had the chorus.
“Roland“ was created in March, 1941. The OUN Vienna bureau under control of the colonel R. Yary behind which there was ACT “Vienna“. Evgeny Pobigushchy &ndash was appointed the Ukrainian commander of a battalion; the former officer of the Polish army, was appointed the German commander the captain Novak. Preparation of staff which took place in Zaubersdorf near Vienna, Abver`s officers from ACT “Vienna“ conducted. Before attack of “Roland“ arrived from Vienna to Romania where it was included in structure 11 - y the German army.
“Roland“ passed on July 26 under command 54 - go the Army case and took part in combing of the territory and protection of roads at the Dniester River. By this time “Roland“ totaled 9 officers and 260 soldiers - - 4 companies on 50 - 65 people. The battalion was expected to be filled up with 150 volunteers - Ukrainians from the “freed“ territories. On arms 6 lungs of the Czech machine guns and the Soviet rifles - three-rulers consisted. On July 29 “Roland“ worked in the area Chisinau - Vaduluy - Water then made transition to the line of the railroad Proskurov - Odessa. At this time the staff 11 - y Armies received the telegram from higher instances: “After consultations with the Reich Minister of occupied territories of the East, the Organization “Roland “ it is required to exclude from participation in a campaign for the political reasons“.
on August 26, 1941. “Roland“ arrived to Fokshany where it was surrounded with machine guns and is disarmed. The staff was sent to Mayerling near Vienna.
of DUN “Nakhtigal“ had training on the ground in Noykhammere and in the Brandenburg - 800 connection. The set in a battalion was made by the OUN Krakow bureau under control of ACT “Krakow“. The battalion was divided into 4 hundred which commanders were German officers, Abver`s employees: count background Tong Guogengstein, to Middelkhaufa, Schiller.
a battalion was relocated on June 18, 1941 to border of the USSR. Nominally Roman Shukhevich ordered it, the commander 1 - go a battalion of the Brandenburg - 800 connection was the actual head. In the night of June 23 the battalion crossed the border near Peremyshl and, without engaging with parts of RKKA, moved in the direction to Lviv. As a part of 17 - y armies he since June 29 participated in fights on the Lviv direction.
In Lviv from the first day of war became more active the German “fifth column“ which was made by ounovsky underground workers and abverovsky saboteurs. The agency resisted to the Soviet troops and parts of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs, captured strategic objects, made punishments.
“Nightingale“ entered on June 30 Lviv together with 1 - m a battalion of the Brandenburg - 800 connection. At this time in the city the main fights between ounovets and the receding Soviet parts ended.
the Battalion “Nakhtigal“ left Lviv on July 7 and soon arrived to Proskurov where it was attached to the Alpine security division. Together with it he participated in fights around Brailov.
came on August 13, 1941 the order on departure in to “Nakhtigal“ Noykhammer. On arrival “Nightingale“ was surrounded with machine guns and disarmed. Arrests in Lviv by the German intelligence agencies of heads of OUN of S. Bandera and I became an occasion to it. Stetsko by order of A. Hitler who demanded “to put in order this gang“. According to other information, the battalion was liquidated from - for the discontent with the German occupational policy growing among his military personnel in Ukraine.
After elimination DUNOV were made mass arrests of members of OUN, and the bailed military personnel was transported to Frankfurt an der Oder where from them it was created 201 - y Ukrainian shutsmanshaftbatalyon (a name E hut. Konovaltsa). the Leader of the Ukrainian nationalists of S. Bander wrote
: “End DUNOV was such: Roman Shukhevich with considerable number of foremen, subforemen and Sagittariuses DUNOV, last not only good military training, but also got strong confidence and military knowledge came back to revolutionary ranks. The main thing that they brought with themselves, - this knowledge of the organization, strategy and tactics of the guerrilla fight experienced by Bolsheviks in World War II and the German technique of liquidation of guerrilla groups. This knowledge very much was useful during creation of UPA and deployment of its fight...“
Ukrainian police formations.
Summer of 1941 command German 17 - y armies published the order about creation of groups of self-defense and police in the Ukrainian villages for counteraction to residual groups of the Soviet servicemen and parachutists. At the same time the number of police officers should not have exceeded a proportion 1 politsay on 100 inhabitants. However OUN started the organization of own militia of the order even before.
at the beginning of war on Volhynia, was organized group of the Ukrainian militia under command of the colonel Likhodko, numbering 100 people. The group was armed with submachine guns, revolvers and dynamite.
the Distinctive sign of militiamen were narukavny is yellow - blue bandages. In demonstration concerning declaration of “the Ukrainian Independent Cathedral Power“ in Lviv took place Exactly on June 27, 1941. On this demonstration the population had an opportunity to see how Jara created a hut (battalion) of the Ukrainian Army of a name Cold took the oath. Since August, 1941 the battalion received the status of “East educational battalion“ and subsequently served as the center of creation is security - police formations.
Police in Kiev were created by members of the OUN Kiev marching group consisting of Bukovinsky`s members kurenya. The large division which received the name Kiev a hut was created. Bukovinsky a hut of OUN and the battalion created in Zhytomyr from among prisoners of war under command of the former centurion of UNR army Pyotr Zakhvalinsky became his kernel. In November to a hut 250 more volunteers from Galichina joined. By the end of 1941 contained a hut about 1500 - - 1700 people. The centurion Zakhvalinsky was appointed the commandant of the Kiev police of an order, his deputy - lieutenant Kedyulich. The building of city department of militia at Khmelnytsky Square became the location kurenya. The police bore protection of an order in the city and suburbs. A distinctive sign of the police officer was it is yellow - a blue armband, the regimentals of police officers were Soviet, trophy.
In Kiev were created by 101 - 111, 113 - 126, 129 - 131, 134 - 140, 143 - 146, 157 - 169 Ukrainian police battalions. In 1943 the part of police battalions was included in structure of 31 - 38 police officers of shooting regiments.
109 - y a battalion under command of the son of the general of UNR M. Omelyanovich - Pavlenko was created from among bukovinets, prisoners of war and volunteers. The battalion acted against guerrillas on Ukraine, then was thrown to Belarus where suffered considerable losses. In 1944 it was removed to Ternopil where 2000 fighters went to the wood in ranks of UPA. Upon transition of part of a battalion to UPA all members of OUN of the colonel Melnik were killed.
115 - y a battalion was created at the beginning of 1942 from the former members of the Kiev marching group (Bukovinsky a hut). The major Pfal, his deputy &ndash was a commander of a battalion; Hauptmann Paul (ounovets Field). The battalion was dressed in the Lithuanian uniform and the Slovak helmets, the weapon was trophy, Soviet. Each soldier wore a white armband with the serial number. Tridents it is also yellow - it was ordered to clean blue bandages from a form.
In July, 1942 - go arrived replenishment from youth which was originally planned to send for work to Germany to a battalion. Then on the basis of one of companies of a battalion formation 118 was begun - go the police battalion
In August, 1942 both battalions were thrown to the Baranovichsky region of Belarus. In the same summer the battalion took part in the operation “Herman“ against guerrillas of the Naliboksky dense forest.
in the Spring and summer of 1944 both battalions took part in the large anti-guerrilla operations “Sector - 24“, “Regenshauer“ and “Fryullingfest“.
118 - y shutsmanshaftbatalyon was created in July, 1942 and conducted military operations against guerrillas in the Chernihiv region, and at the beginning of 1943 was thrown to Minsk where it was reorganized, understaffed and reweaponed. The German rifles, mortars, 48 - millimitronys tools, machine guns of “Maxims“ were received. After transformation the battalion worked in the Minsk district together with 115 - m, 102 - m (the commander major Shuryga) the Ukrainian battalions, 101 - m Ukrainian - the Belarusian battalion of the major V. Muravyev.
In July, 1944 the German command made the decision on transfer of battalions to Warsaw for participation in revolt suppression, but then was decided to include them in structure 30 - y divisions CC.
In August, 1944. battalions were removed to France and are united in a regiment. Later to guerrillas about 500 soldiers left.
In Galicia was created 12 battalions “Noise“ (with 201 on 212): eleven of them were Ukrainian, and 212 - y - Polish. In total by the end of 1942 about 35 thousand Ukrainians served in ranks “Noise“. As a rule, such battalions consisted of four infantry companies (hundreds) on 120 - 160 people. The arms of a battalion (kurenya) were made by the Soviet rifles, machine guns and mortars.
One Ukrainian anti-guerrilla formation created from the former fighters of the colonel Bulby - Borovtsa and melnikovets, acted on the territory of Volhynia in 1943 under Nikolay Medvedsky`s (pseudonym “Hrin“) command. For needs of group the officer school in Lutsk, field hospital, engineering division was created. Legionaries were dressed in the Polish uniform and had various arms, including faustpatrona and mortars.
Gradually a legion subordinated to itself the local management of OUN of Bandera, and as a result of armed conflict between two OUN groups the legion was disarmed. After that former (melnikovsky) command asked for the help Germans. At negotiations with the local German authorities the division received a freedom of action on Volhynia. According to the German registers it began to be called “the Ukrainian Legion of Self-defense“ or “The Volynsk legion“ and in the operational relation SD submitted. Coherent functions in a legion were executed by the German officers of the Lutsk SD Asmus and Raving, the standartenfuehrer CC Bigelmayer was a commander of a legion from the German side.
In 1944 a legion received the name 31 - y shutsmanshaftbatalyon SD and was relocated to the district of Krakow where Germans tried to recruit him in the anti-Polish actions. At the end of 1944. the legion was included by the order of the German command in structure 14 - y divisions CC “Galichina“. Having arrived to Slovenia, legionaries saw that the division generally is the German part and decided to return by means of chetnik to Ukraine. Two thirds of a legion under command horunzhy the Crow (R. Kivelyuk) and Kovalya went to the wood in the valley of the river Moore. The message about fugitives quickly reached a division from where behind them the battalion under command of the major Gayke was sent. Fugitives agreed to return provided that will not be made responsible. After return Roman Kivelyuk was shot, and legionaries were distributed on companies.
police was In villages on contents “public farms “ (the former collective farms), and in the cities - on budgets of town councils.
For training of police in a number of the cities were organized schools of police officers.
At first, Germans gathered in police only youth, but later began to be accepted likets even 50 - summer age.
Fighting capacity of battalions and companies directly depended on a situation at the front. Cases of transition of groups of police officers to the party of guerrillas began with winter 1941 - 1942 when it became clear that the Red Army is capable to win. Mass transition to guerrillas began after a victory near Stalingrad. the Ukrainian police formations had
many tasks, also their use was planned at the front.
the German command in Ukraine formed parts of so-called Ukrainian army. In different areas these parts bore different names, for example: “All-Ukrainian Liberation Army “ “Ukrainian National army “ “Vilni Cossacks “ “Ukrainski Cossacks “ “Ukrainski regiments “ etc.
Staff of the Ukrainian army was completed at the expense of the Ukrainian nationalist elements from among deserters and prisoners of war, fists and criminals, and also violent involvement of youth.
the Created parts were trained under the leadership of the German officers, being trained in service with troops and ability to own the weapon. In Poltava and Kiev there were special schools BOA.
These divisions were used for fight against Red Army, in wagon trains of the German army, for fight against guerrillas, on protection of camps for prisoners of war and the railroads.
In March, 1942 in the territory of Vinnytsia region was created by the German command group “Vilne Êîçàöòâî “ for fight against guerrillas, in structure of group deserters and prisoners of war were taken. When the group was armed by Germans and obmundirovan, all of them ran in the woods, began to be a partisan, making raids on the German troops.
In Kursk region in 1942. the announcement of the German authorities of conditions of service in “The Ukrainian voluntary army“ was distributed. The lump sum of 500 rubles, 5 poods of flour, release from introduction of the established tax by sowing material, and also the best allotment was promised a family of each volunteer.
In concentration camps less than a quarter of security guards were Germans, took the others from among auxiliary voluntary groups from occupied territories, especially from the Western Ukraine. They showed the same cruelty, as well as security guards are SS-men, and atrocities which the survived prisoners remembered, often belong to actions of the West Ukrainian security guards differing in furious anti-Semitism.
the Ukrainian accessories deserved to themselves such terrible reputation from which hair bristle, brutal their handling of civilians was such. When carrying out operations on identification and elimination of Jews they often worked together with eynzatskomanda. Soldiers of the German parts interacting with them did not test to them anything, except contempt. Here the description one esesovsky officer of the nightmare which was created in a concentration camp Beltsek:
“Even in death can distinguish families. They hold hands which clench so strong that then it is very difficult to tear off them from each other to clear a gas chamber for the following party of suicide bombers. Corpses, wet from sweat and urine, with the legs soiled with excrement and blood are thrown out outside. Highly in air children`s little bodies fly up. There is no time at all. Lashes of the Ukrainian supervisors adjust prisoners from funeral team“.
As if these people did not use cunning and did not dodge after war, trying to find a justification to the behavior, nothing will be able to exculpate with them.
On this background Ivan Demjanjuk`s protection (the convict in Germany) the galitsky party “Svoboda“ (calling itself by “All-Ukrainian association“) looks blasphemously - was not among security guards of concentration camps of angels.
most of the servicemen of the Ukrainian police battalions met the End of war in the ranks of the national &ndash divisions CC; 14 - y divisions “Galichina“, 30 - y the Russian, divisions KONRA. Has the luck to remain much in the West which - who tried to disappear from punishment in the USSR.
Such is short history of the organization and activity of the Ukrainian police formations which many members made skeleton of fighters of UPA. I here specially did not paint all punitive actions and atrocities of these divisions, there is enough also of the fact that they were helpers of nazis in the years of war. I do not imagine that in Norway or France, Denmark or the Czech Republic monuments put and declared heroes of a posobnak of fascism and veterans of troops of CC. To any politician in these countries made such proposal, it would be possible to finish political career - at best. It is a shame that it is possible only at us, in Ukraine, and also in Baltic.
From orientation of NKGB USSR No. 683/with to chiefs of UNKGB on areas of the republic about taking measures to interception of communication channels of the German intelligence with OUN
on April 23, 1944
... 12. 02. 1944 the reconnaissance department of fighting group of Pryuttsmann issued the order in which it was specified that as a result of the Willow (The Rovno area) of the negotiations of the German command with heads of UPA begun around Derazhni and successfully finished in the area the agreement on mutual non-aggression and the help in armed struggle with Red Army is reached. Forces of UPA according to this contract are used also for conducting investigation in favor of the German command. For an identification of gangs of UPA the German parts entered special convention...
... Operation of this contract OUN and UPA with the German invaders is visible also on a number of the facts established in the course of elimination of gangster formations of UPA and an enemy agency transferred to our back. the Opponent began to send to
to gangs of UPA of the officers and soldiers for the management them combat operations recently and to throw gangs of UPA under command of the German officers through a front line to our back. So:
2. 03. 1944 in the village of Zamorochye Vysotsky of the district of the Rovno area as a result of carried out by bodies of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs - NKGB of operation on elimination of gangs of Laydaka Unitary Enterprise and “Brightly“ among the killed 93 bandits appeared 7 corpses of the German soldiers, and among trophies over 700 German grenades, cartridges to the German guns and the German radio receiver are withdrawn.
7. 04. 1944 in the village the Maidan of Ostrogsky district of the Rovno area at liquidation of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs by bodies - NKGB of a large gang of Lyutogo Unitary Enterprise among the killed 69 bandits is revealed 3 corpses in the German form which on all signs are the German military personnel.
9. 04. 1944 near settlements Bashkovtsev, Ugorsk, by Tylyavke of Shumsky district of the Ternopil region bodies of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs - NKGB was liquidated UPA bandit group of local formation which was directed by two German officers.
In the same area was found, partially liquidated and disseminated Panasyuk`s gang by number near the 60th persons. It is established that Panasyuk`s gang was thrown by Germans through a front line to the south of. Fords.
At elimination of the above-stated gangs was taken the German portable radio station. Among the bandits killed in the battlefield several corpses of Germans are revealed.
12. 04. 1944 near the village of Karpilovka of Rakitnovsky district of the Rovno area the gang of Pashchenko Unitary Enterprise was liquidated. By poll of the captured participants of this gang it was established that Germans transfer through a front line from Galicia the agents with a task of the organization of gangster groups from the Ukrainian nationalist elements for fight against Red Army and preparation of revolt not only in western, but also in east areas of Ukraine.
According to the got data of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs - UNKGB on the Ternopil region from 12. 04. 1944 three large ounovsky bandit groups on 300 - 400 people move from Galicia to the front for the purpose of its transition and advance to the Kremenetsky woods.
Having agreed with OUN - UPA about joint fight against the Soviet power, the German command seeks to come into contact with bulbovsky bands now...
B Rakitnovsky district of the UNKGB Rovno area on the Rovno area is detained the group of parachutists supplied with the German portable radio station, the weapon, a large number of money, various documents and a uniform of the military personnel of Red Army.
According to testimonies of the detained parachutists is established that one of the German reconnaissance bodies which is deployed in Minsk threw out them with a task to come into contact with bulbovsky bands and to find out their needs in the weapon, ammunition, instructor structure etc. The German intelligence as detainees show, promised full financial support to bulbovets on condition of their active fight in the back of Red Army...
14 - I am a grenadierial division of troops CC (Ukrainian No. 1) [14. Waffen - Grenadier - Division der SS (ukrainische Nr. 1)]
Began to be formed of the western Ukrainians in April, 1943 in Galicia on the basis of the police regiment “Galicia“ and originally received the name of the voluntary Galicia division CC (SS - Freiwilligen - Division Galizien), began to be called as the security Galicia division CC later (SS - Schutzen - Division Galizien). Since October 22, 1943 received the name of the voluntary Galicia division CC again; since July, 1944 - 14 - I am a galitsiysky voluntary division (14. Galizische SS - Freiwilligen - Division), since January 15, 1945 - 14 - I am a grenadierial division of troops CC (Ukrainian No. 1).
Commanders of a division:
30. 6 - 20. 11. 1943 - a gruppenfyurer of CC, the general - the lieutenant of troops CC Walter Schimana
20. 11. 1943 - 10. 5. 1945 - a brigadenfyurer of CC, the general - the major of troops CC Fritz Freytag of
the Western Ukraine once was part of the broken-up Avstro - the Hungarian empire, then was a part of Poland, and in September, 1939 was a part of the USSR.
In August, 1941 the Western Ukraine which Himmler still called precisely Galicia, was proclaimed part the General - governorships, the part of Poland which was operated by nazis. The brigadenfyurer Vekhter sympathizing people who were under his control especially as they could be used against Poles, Jews and the Soviet citizens was a military commandant of this district. In March, 1943 Vekhter applied to the management for permission which he soon got, to create the police regiment “Galicia“. As the lack of staff caused by military operations became more and more notable, Himmler suggested to increase a regiment to the division sizes. Level of anti-Soviet moods was in these parts so high that in volunteers about 70 thousand people registered. It appeared enough for creation of a division and also to create also five police regiments. About 350 officers - volunteers and 2 thousand officers - nestroyevik were sent for study to Germany. the Western Ukraine professes
in the main Greco - Catholicism, and Himmler, itself left a Catholic family, promoted that in the Ukrainian parts regimental chaplains appeared. It was quite typical for Wehrmacht, but it is almost unprecedented in CC where soldiers were allowed to identify the faith only the word “believer“, but where any concrete faith was not especially encouraged.
in the middle of June, 1944 the division received the baptism of fire. It was thrown on the front under Fords where tried to constrain summer approach of the Soviet troops. Without having an opportunity to gain fighting experience gradually, the division was destroyed almost at once. From 14 thousand people who were taking part in battle only three thousand survived, many of those whom did not get after fights, actually appeared in backs of the Soviet troops where they were within several years after the end of war, having turned into guerrilla groups.
Fortunately for Germans, a huge number of new volunteers allowed them to understaff a division quickly. In the fall of 1944 one regiment of this division was thrown to Czechoslovakia for suppression of the Slovak revolt. In January, 1945 all division was sent to Yugoslavia for the help to Germans in their fight against Tito`s guerrillas, but did not take active part in fights.
Later it transferred two months to the jurisdiction of “the Ukrainian National Army“ under Pavlo Shandruk`s guide, the former regular officer of the Polish army.
of the Main part of this division was succeeded to recede in the last days of war on the West and to be given English - to the American troops. The fact that allies were confused by the status of these people who were called as galichana allowed much of them to avoid violent deportation to the Soviet Union. In spite of the fact that they served in structure Vaffen - CC, the Polish general Anders preferred to consider a situation from the pragmatical point of view and decided to forgive them them the past, and considering their potential usefulness as true anticommunists, supported their statements that they are Poles. Vaffen - CC was lucky only several more voluntary parts in the same degree. Despite a fighting track record, only one person in a division, her commander, German Fritz Freytag, a brigadenfyurer of CC, was awarded by the Knightly iron cross. Soldiers of this division wore a special narukavny stripe: a yellow furious lion and three crowns on a blue background. On buttonholes the lion was also represented.
Participation in genocide of Jews.
In the history of the Holocaust there are especially sensitive issues. One of them - participation of galitsiysky and Volynsk Ukrainians in nazi genocide of Jews.
Cooperation of local population with invaders in a nazi “final decision of a Jewish problem“ gained in the Western Ukraine bigger scope, than in other countries and regions occupied by Hitlerites. Partnership of the western Ukrainians in genocide of Jews happened at three levels: Jews were killed by members of local police; they were killed by participants of the Ukrainian national movement - members of “Polesia Sechi“, with UPA etc.; and - killed or gave out - simple peasants and citizens.
East Galicia and the Western Volhynia were two multinational provinces - at first powers Gabsburgov and Russia, then, from 1921 to 1939, the Polish republic, and since September, 1939 - the USSR. Except Ukrainians and Jews there lived Poles (in the Lviv region of Poles and Ukrainians was equally, in the Western Volhynia Poles were in minority), Germans here, and also in small amounts Armenians, Czechs, etc. Since the end 19 - go centuries the international relations became especially intense: there was a dispute who exactly possess these lands.
Approach of Germans in the Western Ukraine in the summer of 1941 was prompt. 25. 06. Lutsk, 28 was taken. 06. - Exactly, 30. 06. - Lviv, 02. 07. Germans took Ternopil, and Hungarians - Stanislav (Ivano - Frankovsk).
the Holocaust of Jews of East Galicia and the Western Volhynia began with the riots arranged with locals. Of course Germans were initiators of these “spontaneous“ riots. However, locals were the main performers. In some places riots began before arrival of the German or Hungarian army, in the period of anarchy there.
the biggest and bloody disorder occurred in Lviv. 28. 06. The red Army left Lviv, and in the city there came the anarchy; OUN which left an underground, began to form the militia. In the morning 30. 06. at the same time with the entry of Wehrmacht into the city, the militia of OUN began a round-up of Jews - men - allegedly with the purpose to reveal those who cooperated with Councils. In local prison “Brigidki“ Germans and ounovsky militia opened cellars of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs and ordered to Jews to take out corpses of prisoners to the yard. At the same time invited residents to an identification of the killed. Provocation was successful also the Jews carrying bodies began to beat. Germans began to shoot Jews directly in the yard, and militiamen gave the new victims.
01. 07. in Lviv the real disorder in which Ukrainians - simple citizens, members of ounovsky militia and the battalion “Nakhtigal“ participated mainly began. In three days about 4 thousand Jews were killed.
According to the similar scenario riots swept across all Galicia. There were cases when riots were carried out also without participation of Germans. In Kolomye disorder lasted two days: between withdrawal of the Soviet troops and the entry into the city of Hungarians. Hungarians stopped spontaneous riots in Stanislav, the Mill, Borshchiva and Gorodenke.
In Lviv disorder repeated 25 - 27. 07.; he had to note 15 - the anniversary of murder of Petliura in Paris Samuil Shvartsbart; the victims “days of Petliura“ in Lviv steel of 2 thousand more Jews. Petliura was killed with 25. 05. 1926, but not 25. 07., that is for “days of Petliura“ obviously incorrect date was chosen. Militiamen of OUN and just citizens became performers of riots. Riots took place in Zolochiva, Ternopil, Borislav, Drogobyche, Sambora, Skalat, Berezhanakh, Chortkov and other cities, and also in a huge number of villages. In total 24 thousand Jews died in July riots in the Western Ukraine. to
the Most essential help to nazis in “the solution of a Jewish problem“ was given by the Ukrainian police formations. So, at elimination of a ghetto on Volhynia at the end of 1941 - go - the beginning of 1942 of police it was ordered to kill on the spot of the patients, cripples and old men not capable to go. Murders of exhausted continued on the way to the place of execution - it was done by shutsmana. Shutsmanam it was necessary to suppress attempts of resistance as it happened in attempt of escape from a ghetto in Sarnakh on Volhynia. Shutsmana participated in execution of 5 thousand Jews in Dubno 05. 10. 1942 and 25. 09. 1942 in Koretsa. Elimination of a ghetto in the Western Volhynia in the fall of 1942 - and it included execution of 150 thousand people - was executed by forces of 1400 German and 12 thousand Ukrainian police officers.
the Ukrainian nationalist organizations also took part in genocide of Jews. OUN encouraged the introduction of the members in police formations, thus, ounovets were involved in the mass executions which are carried out with participation of Noise in Ukraine.
Created in 1929, OUN totaled about 20 thousand members by the beginning of World War II. It was the antidemocratic and racist organization, being guided by the fascist modes, and most of all - on Hitlerite. “creation of the Ukrainian state in all Ukrainian ethnographic territory“ in which dictatorship had to be the form of government was its purpose proclaimed on 1 - m congress in 1929. Creation of this state provided “full removal of all invaders from the Ukrainian lands“. So, “The Ukrainian power“ had to become the state of one nation, to non Ukrainians in it the place was not.
in Lviv proclaimed on June 30, 1941 OUN creation of the Ukrainian state. 3 weeks later Yaroslav Stetsko, the leader and the main ideologist of OUN, issued the document explaining OUN position. Here small endurance from this “works“:
“Including main and the decisive enemy Moscow which actually kept Ukraine in bondage, but not a Judaism I nevertheless realize permanently harmful and hostile role of kikes who help Moscow to enslave Ukraine. Therefore I stand on a position of extermination of kikes and expediency of transferring to Ukraine of the German methods of destruction of a Judaism and I exclude their assimilation“.
the Position of OUN did not remain property only of its management - the organization constantly propagandized it. At the beginning of July, 1941 OUN issued the appeal where there were words: “People! Know! Moscow, Poland, kikes are your enemies. Destroy them; - destroy Poles, kikes, communists without mercy“.
of the Broadcast of OUN urged the population to kill Jews. In the summer of 1943 on Volhynia it was created the Ukrainsk Povstansk Army (UPA), and in East Galicia - Ukrainska Narodna Self-defense (UNSO) which later joined UPA. UPA - UNSO avoided, as far as possible, serious skirmishes with Germans; but it brightly proved in “ethnic cleanings“ of 1943 - 1944 against Poles and Jews and in extermination of refugees from the ghettoes which were proved in the woods.
the Most part of UPA in 1943 - 1944 were made by deserters of police and the Galitsiyen CC division, the part of fighters was recruited on villages violently. At the end of 1943 the commander of Roman Shukhevich Unitary Enterprise announced the oral order to destroy Poles, Jews and Roma.
Should note a role of local churches in the Holocaust. Though in some places priests tried to stop riots, and hid Jews later, the considerable part of clergy supported nazi “final decision“. In Cowell in May, 1942 the priest of the Ukrainian autocephalous church addressed flock with the sermon not to help Jews:
“I beg you: do not give a piece of bread to the Jew! Do not give it water at all! Do not give it a roof! Everyone who knows that the Jew somewhere hides is obliged to find it and to hand over to Germans. From Jews there should be no traces. We have to wipe out them. Only when the last Jew will disappear, we will win war!“.
I think that even these facts from activity of OUN demonstrate that we to Ukrainians cannot trust stupidly promotion of galitsiysky successors Bandera and Shukhevich and to do them by heroes. Creation in the territory of all Ukraine of the state stronger Hitlerite was the purpose of these “patriots“. Present descendants of these marauders and murderers, trying to rehabilitate the ancestors, accuse us, descendants of those who really exempted the world from the Fascism in a lack of “the Ukrainian patriotism“ and complicity to invaders. But the most important, ideas of galitsky nationalists never had serious support in the territory not only Hugo - the East of Ukraine, but also in the Central Ukraine (primordial Ukrainian lands - the cultural and ideological center of the Ukrainian people). Business probably that the Central Ukraine - the territory with the Ukrainian population which settled for centuries with uniform orthodox belief and a certain mentality which did not perceive radical terrorist methods of galitsky swells. Hugo - the East of Ukraine or as it called Novorossiysk edge in imperial Russia - it is the former desert lands of the Wild field on which the population was very little from - for constant attacks of the Crimean Tatars. Mass settling of Hugo - the East began after elimination of the Crimean khanate and accession of these territories to Russia. Their natives from all empire, and also natives of other countries occupied: the German colonists, and also Slavs running from Turks (generally Serbians and Bulgarians) and Greeks, but the main immigrants, naturally, were natives from the Central Ukraine and the residents of the Western Ukraine running from Poles (generally and to pass those who did not want to betray belief of ancestors into Greco - Catholic church). Naturally at it mixture of various people in Hugo - east Ukraine the special mentality and tolerance to representatives of other nationalities was developed that differed from situation in Galichina markedly. In Galicia avstro - the Hungarian authorities artificially kindled fight between Poles and the western Ukrainians, first of all in order that in the person of Ukrainians to have a counterbalance against the Polish national movement.
From all aforesaid should draw one conclusion - to be proud and eulogize representatives of OUN are also not acceptable as to Germans to eulogize NSDAP, and to Americans ku - kluks - clan.
Comments are as they say excessive. There is only one question to the Ukrainian authorities - as it is possible to consider as heroes of Ukraine leaders of OUN, and to equate their helpers to veterans of the Great Patriotic War; how many it is possible to follow the tastes of the galitsky neo-Nazis and their supporters calling themselves National - patriots, the Ukrainians poisoning with the promotion of soul of the younger generation - knocking them into the heads that they have to support galitsky values, their concepts about history, culture, and it is unacceptable for most of the Ukrainian people. Speak Ukraine it was a colony of Russia, - - nonsense, even in the Russian Empire generals and ministers, Ukrainians on a nationality, was more than competent galichan in Avstro - Hungary. Position of Ukrainians and Russians in the Russian Empire, was absolutely identical - what it is a colony, the African or Indian leaders to the English nobility in the rights were not compared, and especially ministers and generals did not make. But now Ukraine becomes a colony of the killed Avstro`s province - Hungary - Galicia.