Android OS - what it? I will try to tell
In this article about the popular Android operating system, about history of its basis and development. I will describe versions of OS, its functional and technical capabilities. I hope that our readers, especially those who only begin the acquaintance to this operating system will gather a lot of new of this material. So, we will start.
Android - the new and advanced operating system which uses the modified version of a kernel Linux. Originally it was developed by the Android Inc company., which was acquired later by Google, and Open Handset Alliance lately belongs. The Android operating system allows developers to create programs in the Java language which operate the device through the developed Google Java of library.
The history Google Android OS
For the first time Android was presented on November 5, 2007, along with the basis of Open Handset Alliance representing consortium from 47 &ndash companies; producers hardware and the software, the telecommunication equipment seeking for promotion of the open software for mobile devices. Google released the very first Android version under the open license Apache as the free software with an open source code.
In July, 2005 Google got Android Inc. the small startapovy company from Fell - Alto, California, the USA. Among Android - founders who went to work in Google subsequently it is possible to mark out such people as: Andy Rubin (cofounder of Danger), Rich Mayner (cofounder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.) Nick Sirs (time vice-the president of T - Mobile), Chris Whyte (the head of department of design and development of WebTV interfaces). At that time little it was known of activity of Android, Inc., who they what software they made for mobile phones are. From - for it there were rumors that Google plans to enter for the market of mobile phones.
In the Google company the team under the leadership of Andy Rubin developed the mobile platform which is based on a kernel of Linux which they offered producers and telecom operators for installation in the smartphones arranged by the principle of granting the flexible and expanded system. It was reported what Google already developed a number of components hardware and the software that became a signal for partners and the telecom operators interested in any cooperation. The first rumors that Google plans entry into the market of mobile smartphones appeared in December, 2006. Reports from BBC and The Wall Street Journal noted that Google plans to install the system of search and the integrated appendices on mobile phones for what she will use the best efforts. Printing and electronic mass media reported that according to rumors of Google Google - phones (so-called Googlephones or androidofon) is engaged in development company. Similar speculation followed after publication of Google of certain technical specifications and display of prototypes for producers of mobile phones and telecom operators.
In September, 2007 InformationWeek conducts statistical research during which it becomes clear that Google submitted several patent applications in the sphere of mobile telephony. Finally Google presented the first Nexus smartphone in which Android - a mobile operating system with an open source code was used. The device was made by Tayvansky corporation HTC and became available on sale on January 5, 2010.
On November 5, 2007 Open Handset Alliance representing consortium from several companies was created: Texas Instruments, Broadcom Corporation, Google, HTC, Intel, LG, Marvell Technology Group, Motorola, NVIDIA, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics, Sprint Nextel and T - Mobile, they were engaged in development of open standards for various mobile devices. Open Handset Alliance (OHA) presented the first product - Android, a platform for mobile devices on version 2 Linux kernel. 6.
On December 9, 2008 it was declared that 14 new members will join Android to the project, including: ARM Holdings, Atheros Communications, Asustek Computer Inc, Garmin Ltd, Softbank, Sony Ericsson, Toshiba Corp and Vodafone Group Plc.
Except for the short period of updating, Android it was available as an open code since October 21, 2008. Google opened a source code completely (including network and telephone flow down) under the license Apache.
With the license Apache sellers can develop and add own expansions without surely distribution and publication of a source code of the appendices, games and other software products.
versions from the moment of official release of Android endured several global updates and received a set of changes. As a rule, these updates corrected errors of a basic operating system and added new features.
Android 1. 5 (Cupcake), based on Linux Kernel 2. 6. 27.
the official Android 1 update was released on April 30, 2009. 5 (Cupcake).
This updating included several new functions of the interface and the updates included in version 1. 5:
A possibility of record and viewing of video in the video camera mode;
Loading of video on YouTube and photos in Picasa directly from a smarfon;
The new keyboard with function intellectual Autofillings ;
Support of the Bluetooth A2DP (which, in turn, spoiled Bluetooth communication with many popular automobile systems and fonts. This fact still is not eliminated even (December, 2009));
A possibility of automatic connection to Bluetooth - a font at a certain distance from an androidofon;
New widgets and folders which can be placed on a desktop of a smarfon;
Animation when changing screens;
Expanded opportunities of copying and an insert including a web - pages.
of Android 1. 6 (Donut), based on Linux Kernel 2. 6. 27.
was released on September 15, 2009 by Android 1. 6 (Donut) of SDK which included the following updates:
The improved interaction with Android Market;
The built-in interface for a chamber, video cameras and galleries of images;
In gallery appeared an opportunity to choose several photos for removal;
Is updated by Voice Search that allowed it to receive faster response and deeper integration into native appendices, including a possibility of a set of contacts;
Is updated system of search which allows to look for in bookmarks, history, contacts and on the Internet directly from the main screen now;
Updating for support of the CDMA/EVDO, 802 technology. 1x, VPN, gestures and transformation of the text to the speech;
Improvements of speed of search of a chamber.
of Android 2. 0 / 2. 0. 1 / 2. 1 (Eclair), based on Linux Kernel 2. 6. 29
Android 2 was let out on October 26, 2009. 0 (Eclair) of SDK, among the main changes it is possible to note:
Optimization of speed of operation of hardware;
Support of screens of the bigger size and permission;
The updated user`s interface;
New user interface of the browser and support of HTML5;
New list of contacts;
The ratios improved white / black for backgrounds;
The improved Google Maps 3. 1. 2;
Support of Microsoft Exchange;
Support of the built-in camera flash;
The improved virtual keyboard;
Bluetooth 2. 1;
Live wall-paper of a table.
On December 3, 2009 Android 2 was let out. 0. 1 SDK.
On January 12, 2010 Android 2 was let out. 1 SDK, some sources call it Flan but this version actually still belongs to Eclair .
the Following version (after 2. 1) will be called FroYo after FroYo there will be an updating which will be called Gingerbread .
Android 2. 2 will be much quicker - is 450% faster, than Android 2. 1. The Internet - the blog Android Police which is devoted to studying of any questions concerning this operating system published this result after testing of Nexus One with different Android versions. On Android 2. 1 productivity of the computer made 6,5 - 7 MFLOPS, and when using Froyo it increased to 37,6 MFLOPS. However, it only for nonnative appendices what follows from that the speed of performance of the general daily actions much more will not increase.
Android 2. 2 Froyo will be turned by phone into a hot spot of reception of Wi - Fi. The Froyo operating system will allow to accept a signal 3G on any device (including iPad), technically to it ready. Besides, the following updating of the Android platform will standardly support the Flash &ndash function; confirmed it vice-the president on engineering of Google Andy Rubin (Andy Rubin).
Owners of phones who were tired of need manually to update the applications, will be glad to learn that Froyo automatically loads updates in the background. To secure the device against malicious applications or viruses, the user, most likely, should most control what applications will be updated and as it is frequent.
It seems that Android 2 developers. 2 work on a possibility of establishment of appendices on phone memory card. It is one of the most popular wishes of what users would like to see in Android. On the official site of Google Code this function is announced as Coming Soon . It means that considerably will extend a memory size frame which the user will take away for appendices.
Though Google did not announce official date of release of Android 2 yet. 2, most likely, it will be declared at conference of developers of Google which will take place on May 19 - 20. Nevertheless, you should not hope for a fast exit of an operating system. Time will occupy process of testing of work of Android on different models of phones, and also check of a correctness of work of the software in general.
Functional and technical capabilities
At the moment Android maintains the following functional and technical capabilities:
at the hardware level a platform can be adapted for use of big VGA screens, 2D graphic library, 3D library - graphics on the basis of the OpenGL ES 1 specifications. 0, and also traditional opportunities of a platform of smarfon;
data storage is carried out when using the software of the SQLite database;
communication opportunities of Android support the following technologies of communication: GSM/EDGE, CDMA, EV - DO, UMTS, Bluetooth and Wi - Fi. Messages of the SMS and MMS are available as a form of an exchange of messages, including compound text messages;
a web - the browser available in Android, is created on the basis of the open source code applied in WebKit. The browser received an assessment 93/100 from Acid3 Test;
support of Java - the programs written on Java have to be compiled so that they could be carried out in the Dalvik virtual computer which is specialized realization of the virtual computer intended for use in mobile devices though technically is not standard Java Virtual Machine; broad support in Android of audio, video, graphic media - formats includes
: H. 263, H. 264 (in 3GP or the container MP4), MPEG - 4 SP, AMR, AMR - WB (3GP in the container), AAC, HE - AAC (in the container MP4 or 3GP format), a MP3, MIDI, OGG Vorbis, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, BMP; additional hardware support of Android of a wide range of devices allows to use
: video and cameras, touch screens, GPS, accelerometers, magnetometers, the accelerated 2D graphics with copying of the bit massif (with hardware orientation, scaling, transformation of a format of pixels) and the accelerator of processing of 3D graphics; the developed development environment includes
: emulators of devices, tools for debugging, profiling of productivity and memory, a plug-in for Eclipse IDE;
the developed service of sale of programs, games, Market Android applications represents the catalog of appendices and games which can be loaded and installed directly on the device through wireless connection without use of the personal computer. Exclusively free applications were originally supported. Paid appendices and games were placed on Android Market in the United States on February 19, 2009. The Android market extends in high gear. By December, 2009 more than 20000 appendices and games for Android were available to downloading;
Android has the built-in support of the Multi technology - Touch which is available in new smarfona, such as HTC Hero. This function was turned off initially at the level of a kernel (perhaps to avoid violation of the estimated patents for technologies of the touch screen belonging to Apple). Google already released update of the software for Nexus One and plans to release update for Motorola Droid which will allow to involve in Multi devices - Touch. Involvement of the Multi technology - Touch will allow to add convenience when using the device in various appendices and will give an impetus in creation of new, more interesting and original games.
At the moment Android has quite good prospects as a basic platform for various devices, from mobile phones to the built-in automobile computers and control systems of various household appliances supporting many interesting functions of applied, communication, entertaining and game character.