Rus Articles Journal

Why PPSh call “the Victory weapon“? The Great Patriotic War of

In the first months of war approach of Germans and their fast advance to the West practically disarmed Red Army of automatic. There was it for several reasons.

1. Practically all weapon, modern for that time, was or on arms of boundary parts, or is stored in warehouses in border areas.

2. Fast advance of Germans forced to throw or evacuate plants which could produce automatic weapons.

And PPSh which was not delivered in border troops became almost only submachine gun in the first year of war. Speak, PPSh was distributed by Stalin, “throwing“ several hundreds of units of the weapon on the most dangerous sites.

In 1942 when earned engineering plant No. 367 in. Vyatka Glades where production was organized by Shpagin, with supply with the weapon in troops it became much easier. Further release of PPSh joined the automobile plant of Stalin (PS) and more than ten engineering plants. The total amount of release only of PPSh during war made about 6 million pieces (in Germany of all types of submachine guns 935,4 thousand were made) . Six times less, and practically all Europe worked for Germans. The automatic machine was made till the end of war in spite of the fact that in 1943 there was more “advanced“ submachine gun of Sudayev (PPS - 43).

Since 1942 for needs of RKKA PPSh begin to let out in Iran. The Iranian weapon has a brand in the form of a crown and is very much appreciated at collectors.

And still, despite so mass release, armed PPSh at the beginning of war first of all the companies of submachine gunners which are in a reserve and going to difficult sectors of the front. Since 1943, during the Battle of Stalingrad, there were attack planes - the sappers who carried out, speaking the modern language of “cleaning“ of city structures and even quarters. In offensive operations PPSh armed first of all a tank landing which the first rushed into enemy trenches. At small distances (do100 m) range of rifles and machine guns was not necessary any more, and when using submachine guns density of fire of each fighter who could be brought on tanks only limited quantity significantly increased. By the way, Americans witty called the submachine gun of Thompson “the trench broom“, and PPSh was such here “broom“ too.

In city fight tactics changed a little: to the room from where the grenade was fired, rushed (the shot from a tank or artillery piece was made), then the deafened opponents were finished lines of submachine guns. Tactics of city fights changed very slightly since then. Rate of fire of PPSh and huge capacity shop allowed even “to undersign“ bullets on a wall that cannot be made modern small arms.

Taktiko - technical characteristics of PPSh - 41.

Calibre: 7,62x25 mm of TT.

Weight: 5,45 kg with a drum on 71 cartridges; 4,3 kg with a horn on 35 cartridges; 3,63 kg without shop.

Length: 843 mm.

Rate of firing: 900 and more shots a minute.

Capacity of shop: 71 boss in drum shop or 35 cartridges in sector (box-shaped) shop.

Effective range: about 200 m turns (the German MP 38/40 to 100 m), to 300 m single shots.

Advantages:

It is reliable, shoots in any conditions, even at very hard frost. Boyok in a frost reliably breaks a cap, hands do not “freeze“ to a wooden butt, and the big bracket allows to shoot even in fur mittens.

Approximately twice dalnoboyny the main competitor MP 38/40.



it is convenient to span to use the Strong wooden butt in hand-to-hand fight.

High, over 900 shots a minute the rate of fire creating the high density of fire.

Shortcomings:

Rather bulky and heavy. With drum shop it is very inconvenient to carry arms behind the back.

“Was afraid“ of a fine dust more, than a rifle. All the matter is that very short motionless boyok, covered with a thick dust layer, begins to misfire. And in order that to clean it, it was necessary to disassemble all automatic machine. During transitions on dusty roads the weapon was wrapped in a raincoat - tents.

Long loading of drum shop, usually shops loaded before fight.

the Possibility of a casual shot when falling on a firm surface. However, it is just feature of a design of the weapon with a free lock.

High, over 900 shots a minute, rate of fire. At a lack of ammunition this advantage passed into a shortcoming.

often warped the Cartridge of a bottle form when giving from shop in a cartridge chamber. The German and American cylindrical boss more was suitable for the automatic weapon.

But even to these shortcomings on range, accuracy and reliability of PPSh it is incomparable surpassed all available types of submachine guns of the German, Austrian, Italian, American and English production.

During war the weapon was continuously improved. At first PPSh was supplied with the sector sight calculated on firing to 500 m, but practice showed that effectively it is possible to use the weapon only at range to 200 m. Therefore the sector sight was replaced simple in production and adjustment fire of L - figurative cross over entirely for firing with 100 m and over 100 m. Combat experience showed that such sight does not reduce fighting qualities of the weapon. Except change of a sight, a lot more small changes were made, for example, the latch of shop which reduced probability of casual pressing it and loss of shop is changed.

There were also especially exact automatic machines with additional, most often self-made, dulny compensators and riflescopes for exact firing on small distances.

Except the weapon, also the cartridge was continuously modernized: so, the modern boss with the steel core was developed inside (the steel core raises “probivayemost“ and loses the gross weight of ammunition) during war.

Since 1942 production more convenient and standardized sector began (Rozhkov of shops). However it is wide they begin to be applied in troops only since 1944

of PPSh was the most mass automatic weapon of the Soviet infantry in days of the Great Patriotic War. It consisted on arms of tankmen, gunners, paratroopers, intelligence agents, sappers, operators. It was widely applied by the Soviet guerrillas in the territory occupied by fascists. It consisted of only 5 parts that provided its fast studying and development by Red Army men, and also was simple in service and repair.

PPSh was widely used not only in Red Army, but also in German too. Most often it armed troops of CC. On arms of Wehrmacht consisted as usual 7,62 - millimetric PPSh (MP717 (r) index), and remade under a cartridge of 9õ19 mm. “Automatic pistol“ option (MP41 (r) index). And alteration back was also allowed, it was necessary to replace a trunk and an adapter of shop only. The letter “r“ in brackets designates Russian and was applied in designation of all trophy samples of the Soviet weapon (shooting, artillery, tanks etc.).

The PPSh submachine gun so “grew together“ with image of the Soviet soldier - the liberator that all monuments to the Soviet soldier and abroad contain in our country as the obligatory element is the weapon. In Victory Day parade on June 24, 1945 at Red Square in Moscow most of participants carried in PPSh hands too.