Rus Articles Journal

Why PPSh call “the Victory weapon“? History of creation

the Submachine gun of Shpagin, PPSh, along with the tank T - 34, a jet mortar “Katyusha“ and an attack plane Il - 2 call not differently as “the Victory weapon“. And this is true!

Why so it turned out? PPSh was not the best Soviet automatic machine (experts unambiguously give PPS palm - 43 - to Sudayev`s submachine gun obr. 1943) . PPSh was heavy also with that round shop which we know according to photos of military years, to movies and monuments, not really - that is convenient. And well - run march - a throw with the weapon behind the back if to you on a back the heavy round iron box knocks. Often jammed a cartridge, shops were adjusted to a concrete copy and could not approach others that for the military weapon there is no zer gutnut, etc.

And still PPSh became the victory weapon. Also became deservedly. Why? Let`s look into it.

Development of the first types of weapon called today by submachine guns began even in World War I. At the end of World War I the famous German designer Hugo Shmayser (Hugo Schmeisser) created a successful sample of MP - 18 under the drum shop unified with the gun “Automatic pistol“ (or special box-shaped) which was the main arms of the German assault groups that broke through then the western front. Representatives of the won countries so were afraid of this weapon that the automatic small arms in army of Germany were forbidden by the Versailles contract.

After civil war in the Soviet Union submachine guns were not given due consideration. On arms of RKKA there was generally Mosin`s rifle, Maxim`s machine gun and the revolver the Revolver. And though the famous designer of the weapon Tokarev (the author well-known for a TT) also tried to create the submachine gun, this sample did not satisfy military at all. In - the first, were not suitable ammunition, the boss from the revolver the Revolver was very weak and even structurally not adapted for automatic firing. In - the second, the management of Red Army not absolutely correctly understood tactics of modern war, “wars of motors“ at big speeds and small distances between opponents.

Everything changed from the beginning of the Finnish campaign (Winter war). It was necessary to pay for understanding of importance of this type of weapon blood. Big blood. Perfectly trained Finnish skiers from battalions of a special purpose (Sissi) armed 9 - millimetric Suomi submachine guns, suddenly appearing practically from “from nowhere“, caused a huge loss to Red Army, generally cutting wagon trains with provisions and ammunition and attacking marching columns. Suddenness and huge rate of fire (to 1000 shots a minute) Suomi automatically with a large supply of cartridges in each shop was the main advantage of the Finnish skiers. Marching columns of Red Army men just did not manage to rearrange to fight back. The Finnish snipers of “cuckoo“ sitting on trees used too short Suomi which to disguise much more simply, than a long rifle.

Exactly by this time on arms of RKKA the gun TT already began to treat the boss much more powerful, than gun Revolver ammunition. Under it also began to create the submachine gun.

So, the first PPD Soviet submachine gun which entered a series - 34 (the submachine gun of Degtyaryov obr. 1934) it was made as analog of the Finnish Suomi. Though their “interiors“ significantly differ, externally they look as “twins there are brothers“. A wooden box - a butt, drum shop, a round receiver and the punched trunk casing. After modernization in 1940 the weapon received the PPD index - 40. This sample which completely satisfied military, however, was very difficult in production. For mass production during war (World War II began in 1939) it was obviously no good.

In 1940 the narcomat of arms of the USSR announces a new competition on development of the submachine gun for a cartridge of 7,62õ25 mm. Main conditions: tactics - technical characteristics is not worse than PPD - 40, but the weapon has to be cheaper in production (up to a possibility of production on non-core, neogun, the enterprises). On a competition two samples, submachine guns of designers G. S. Shpagin and B. G. Shpitalny are exposed. Both samples had approximately equal the fighting characteristics determined by ammunition. The situation was amusing also the fact that what sample would not be chosen by the commission, it would be called all the same by PPSh.

So, conclusions of the commission: “ … survivability of the sample designed by Shpagin was checked 30 000 shots then software showed a satisfactory grouping of firing and a working order of details. Reliability of automatic equipment was checked by firing under corners of an eminence and inducement in 85 degrees, at artificially dusty mechanism, at total absence of greasing (all details were washed out by kerosene and were dry wiped with rags), shooting without cleaning of the weapon of 5000 cartridges. All this allows to judge exclusive reliability and non-failure operation of the weapon along with high fighting qualities “. D. N. Bolotin. “History of the Soviet small arms“.

Besides, at approximately equal military characteristics, Shpagin`s sample appeared much cheaper and more technologically. Production of a design of Shpagin required 5,6 stankochas, at the same time production of a design of Shpitalny required 25,3 stankochas, that is is almost five times more. Besides, practically any large engineering plant could make Shpagin`s design. The automatic machine, except a wooden butt, a trunk, a lock, several springs and shop was almost made of one integral sheet of metal method of cold and hot stamping. Stamped details almost did not demand adjustment. Even the teenager could assemble the automatic machine, big qualification for this purpose was not required. It also defined the choice of military.

Structurally the PPSh submachine gun is intended for firing by single shots and turns on range to 500 m. Consists of the barreled and barrier boxes connected by the hinge, the trigger mechanism and a wooden box to a butt. The principle of operation of automatic equipment - kickback at a shot of a massive lock and return by a powerful spring back. Any hooks, turns etc. The trigger in the released state just stops the movement of a lock in situation with the squeezed spring. The cock is pressed, the lock is pushed with a spring forward, and the shot is made. Further the lock is rolled away, the sleeve is thrown out, the boss from shop gets to a cartridge chamber and if the cock is pressed, the cycle is repeated. Behind vozvratno - a fighting spring the rubber shock-absorber is placed to reduce vibration at kickback of a lock back.

Even a casing on PPSh unique, it carries out at the same time four different functions:

1. Tsevye which it is possible to hold, without being afraid to burn hands about the heated trunk.

2. Cuts of a special form cooled a trunk during firing.

3. The muzzle brake reducing return.

4. The compensator, a special slanting cut on the end reducing “tossing“ of a trunk up when firing.

The weapon trunk for the first time in the USSR began to be chromeplated for reduction of corrosion and ease of cleaning from within.

Production of the PPSh submachine guns began in December, 1940, under the PPSh index - 41 (the submachine gun of Shpagin obr. 1941)

Georgy Semyonovich Shpagin was deservedly awarded by two Orders of Lenin, the Order of Suvorov 2 class and the Stalin award.

And ahead there was a war. The Great Patriotic War where PPSh will be one of main “characters“.

Be continued.