Rus Articles Journal

Who such Ukrainian nationalists? Genocide of Jews in the Western Ukraine.

In the history of the Holocaust are especially sensitive issues. One of them - participation of galitsiysky and Volynsk Ukrainians in nazi genocide of Jews.

Cooperation of local population with invaders in a nazi final decision of a Jewish problem gained in the Western Ukraine bigger scope, than in other countries and regions occupied by Hitlerites. East Galicia and the Western Volhynia were two multinational provinces - at first powers Gabsburgov and Russia, then, from 1921 to 1939, the Polish republic, and since September, 1939 - the USSR. Except Ukrainians and Jews there lived Poles (in the Lviv region of Poles and Ukrainians was equally, in the Western Volhynia Poles were in minority), Germans here, and also in small amounts Armenians, Czechs, etc. Since the end 19 - go centuries the international relations became especially intense: there was a dispute who exactly possess these lands.

Approach of Germans in the Western Ukraine in the summer of 1941 was prompt. 25. 06. Lutsk, 28 was taken. 06. - Exactly, 30. 06. - Lviv, 02. 07. Germans took Ternopil, and Hungarians - Stanislav.

the Holocaust of Jews of East Galicia and the Western Volhynia began with the riots arranged with locals. Germans were initiators of these riots. However, locals were the main performers. In some places riots began before arrival of the German or Hungarian army, in the period of anarchy there.

the biggest disorder occurred in Lviv. 28. 06. The red Army left Lviv, and in the city there came the anarchy; OUN which left an underground, began to form the militia. In the morning 30. 06., at the same time with the entry of Wehrmacht into the city, the militia of OUN began a round-up of Jews - men - allegedly with the purpose to reveal those who cooperated with Councils. In local prison of Brigidki Germans and ounovsky militia opened cellars of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs and ordered to Jews to take out corpses of prisoners to the yard. At the same time invited residents to an identification of the killed. Provocation was successful also the Jews carrying bodies began to beat. Germans began to shoot Jews directly in the yard, and militiamen gave the new victims.

01. 07. in Lviv the real disorder in which Ukrainians - simple citizens, members of ounovsky militia and a battalion Nakhtigal participated mainly began. In three days about 4 thousand Jews were killed.

According to the similar scenario riots swept across all Galicia. There were cases when riots were carried out also without participation of Germans. In Kolomye disorder lasted two days: between withdrawal of the Soviet troops and the entry into the city of Hungarians. Hungarians stopped spontaneous riots in Stanislav, the Mill, Borshchiva and Gorodenke.

In Lviv disorder repeated 25 - 27. 07.; he had to note 15 - the anniversary of murder of Petliura in Paris Samuil Shvartsbart; 2 thousand more Jews became the victims of days of Petliura in Lviv. Petliura was killed with 25. 05. 1926, but not 25. 07., that is for days of Petliura obviously incorrect date was chosen. Militiamen of OUN and just citizens became performers of riots. Riots took place in Zolochiva, Ternopil, Borislav, Drogobyche, Sambora, Skalat, Berezhanakh, Chortkov and other cities, and also in many villages. In total 24 thousand Jews died in July riots in the Western Ukraine.

the Most essential help to nazis in the solution of a Jewish problem rendered the Ukrainian police formations. So, at elimination of a ghetto on Volhynia at the end of 1941 - the beginning of 1942 of police it was ordered to kill on the spot of the patients, cripples and old men not capable to go. Murders of exhausted continued on the way to the place of execution - it was done by shutsmana. Shutsmanam it was necessary to suppress attempts of resistance as it happened in attempt of escape from a ghetto in Sarnakh on Volhynia. Shutsmana participated in execution of 5 thousand Jews in Dubno 05. 10. 1942 and 25. 09. 1942 in Koretsa. Elimination of a ghetto in the Western Volhynia in the fall of 1942 - and it included execution of 150 thousand people - was executed by forces of 1400 German and 12 thousand Ukrainian police officers.

the Ukrainian nationalist organizations also took part in genocide of Jews. OUN encouraged the introduction of the members in police formations, thus, ounovets were involved in the mass executions which are carried out with participation of Noise in Ukraine.

Created in 1929, OUN totaled about 20 thousand members by the beginning of World War II. It was the antidemocratic and racist organization, being guided by the fascist modes, and most of all - on Hitlerite. Creation of the Ukrainian state in all Ukrainian ethnographic territory in which dictatorship had to be the form of government was its purpose proclaimed on 1 - m congress in 1929. Creation of this state provided “full removal of all invaders from the Ukrainian lands“. So, the Ukrainian power had to become the state of one nation, to non Ukrainians in it the place was not.

in Lviv proclaimed on June 30, 1941 OUN creation of the Ukrainian state. 3 weeks later Yaroslav Stetsko, the leader and the main ideologist of OUN, issued the document explaining OUN position. Here small endurance from it:

“Including main and the decisive enemy Moscow which actually kept Ukraine in bondage, but not a Judaism I, nevertheless, realize permanently harmful and hostile role of kikes who help Moscow to enslave Ukraine. Therefore I stand on a position of extermination of kikes and expediency of transferring to Ukraine of the German methods of destruction of a Judaism and I exclude their assimilation“.

at the beginning of July, 1941 released OUN the appeal where there were words: “People! Know! Moscow, Poland, kikes are your enemies. Destroy them; - destroy Poles, kikes, communists without mercy“.

of the Broadcast of OUN urged the population to kill Jews. In the summer of 1943 on Volhynia Ukrainska Povstanska Army, and in East Galicia - Ukrainska Narodna Samooborona who later joined UPA was created. UPA - UNSO avoided, as far as possible, serious skirmishes with Germans; but it brightly proved in ethnic cleanings of 1943 - 1944 against Poles and Jews and in extermination of refugees from a ghetto.

the Most part of UPA in 1943 - 1944 were made by deserters of police and a division CC Galicia, the part of fighters was recruited violently. At the end of 1943 the commander of Roman Shukhevich Unitary Enterprise announced the oral order to destroy Poles, Jews and Roma.

Local churches participated in the Holocaust too. Though some priests tried to stop riots, and hid Jews later, the most part of clergy supported nazis. In Cowell in May, 1942 the priest of the Ukrainian autocephalous church addressed flock with the sermon not to help Jews:

“I beg you: do not give a piece of bread to the Jew! Do not give it water at all! Do not give it a roof! Everyone who knows that the Jew somewhere hides is obliged to find it and to hand over to Germans. From Jews there should be no traces. We have to wipe out them. Only when the last Jew will disappear, we will win war!“.

I think that even these facts from activity of OUN demonstrate that we to Ukrainians cannot trust stupidly promotion of galitsiysky successors Bandera and Shukhevich and to do them by heroes. Creation in the territory of all Ukraine of the state stronger Hitlerite was the purpose of these “patriots“. But the most important, ideas of galitsky nationalists never had serious support in the territory not only Hugo - the East of Ukraine, but also the Central Ukraine (primordial Ukrainian lands - the cultural and ideological center of the Ukrainian people). Business probably that the Central Ukraine - the territory with the Ukrainian population which settled for centuries with uniform orthodox belief and a certain mentality which did not perceive radical terrorist methods of galitsky swells. Hugo - the East of Ukraine or as it called Novorossiysk edge in imperial Russia - it is the former desert lands of the Wild field on which the population was very little from - for constant attacks of the Crimean Tatars. Mass settling of Hugo - the East began after elimination of the Crimean khanate and accession of these territories to Russia. Their natives from all empire, and also natives of other countries occupied: the German colonists, and also Slavs running from Turks (generally Serbians and Bulgarians) and Greeks, but the main immigrants, naturally, were natives from the Central Ukraine and the residents of the Western Ukraine running from Poles (generally those who did not want to pass into Greco - Catholic church). Naturally at it mixture of various people in Hugo - east Ukraine the special mentality and tolerance to representatives of other nationalities was developed that differed from situation in Galichina markedly. In Galicia avstro - the Hungarian authorities artificially kindled fight between Poles and the western Ukrainians, first of all in order that in the person of Ukrainians to have a counterbalance against the Polish national movement.

From all aforesaid should draw one conclusion - to be proud and eulogize representatives of OUN are also not acceptable as to Germans to eulogize NSDAP, and to Americans ku - kluks - clan.