Echeveria. How to grow up this “a stone rose“?
In room floriculture enjoy quite wide popularity representatives of family Tolstyankovy (Crassulaceae). The widespread Echeveria (Echeveria) also concerns to them. In the nature these plants grow on plains and in mountainous areas of Mexico, Central America, North - the West of South America, some types can be met in the southern states of the USA. During the summer period there is a lot of sun, and there are only easy frosts in the winter.
The name of the sort Echeveria comes from a name of the Mexican artist of Atanasio Echeveria who in the middle of the 19th century illustrated the book “Flora of Mexico“. According to different data, the sort includes from 120 to 200 species of plants of the most various forms and the sizes. But at the same time all types have and much in common.
Echeverias (them also echeveriya still call) are perennial grassy plants with the juicy leaves collected in the socket. Leaves happen from 3 to 30 cm in the lengths and from 1 to 15 cm width flattened or almost cylindrical form, narrowed in the basis and pointed at the end. Sheet plates are covered with a dense wax raid or gentle velvety omission that protects them from solar burns and cold. On a bright sun the wax raid becomes thicker why leaves get it is white - blue coloring, and edges and tips of leaves redden.
In the nature the majority of echeverias have the shortened stalk, but also kustovidny forms meet. In room conditions stalk length in many respects depends on illumination. At a lack of light the echeveria is extended and it is even possible to receive almost ampelous copies. But if the cultivation purpose not in it, and in receiving a typical specific form and flowers, then needs to be provided a lot of sun.
The main distinctive sign of echeverias - their flowers similar to small hand bells on which it is easily possible to distinguish these plants from aeoniums, very similar to them, dudly, graptopetalum. Flowers at echeverias depending on a look happen from 1 to 3 cm long, settle down on lateral inflorescences. Length of an inflorescence can be from 4 to 50 cm in length, it can come to an end even with the small socket of leaves. Fleshy chashelistik are covered with a wax raid or trimmed, as well as leaves. Flowers - hand bells are from is yellow - green to is reddish - orange coloring, brighter from outer side. If there is a cross-pollination, then echeverias give up fruits - pyatignezdny boxes small brown seeds.
of the Condition of keeping
is absolutely simple to Grow up echeverias, they are not exacting to the soil and do not suffer from dryness of air. But normal formation of a plant requires sufficient lighting. Echeverias well grow at windows of any orientation, except northern. It is desirable to support them without shading in the open air in the summer, without being afraid of receiving solar burns. Some trimmed types are even capable to transfer the first frosts in our climate.
In the spring and summer of an echeveria it is preferable to contain at a temperature of 22 - 27 degrees though they transfer a heat with firmness. In the winter of an echeveria are at rest, and approximately from October to February they need to be supported at a temperature of 8 - 10 degrees, but light has to be enough. The copies blossoming in winter time leave in the warm room.
An echeveria - though the succulent, but needs regular waterings, in the summer - is rather plentiful, in the winter - is moderate and rare, and the contents temperature is lower, the watering is more rare. Between waterings the earth lump has to dry out. But at full dryness of the soil for an appreciable length of time begin to die off the lower leaves why appearance of a plant spoils. The trimmed types water carefully, avoiding hit of water on leaves. Echeverias cannot be sprayed, otherwise vanishes them it is bluish - a silvery raid on leaves, or leaves can decay, and in a sunny weather - to get burns. Therefore quite good option - watering via the pallet. In the spring and summer of an echeveria feed up fertilizers for cactuses and succulents once a month.
Change and reproductionis suitable
For cultivation of an echeveria low wide ware since root system superficial. At the bottom of a pot the good drainage is obligatory. Pochvosmes make of 3 parts of the steamed cespitose earth and 1 part of the calcinated coarse-grained sand. It is quite good to add pieces of charcoal and a beaten brick. It is desirable to steam or calcinate the soil before use to disinfect. Only young plants need annual change. Old replace seldom, as required. At change it is desirable not to concern leaves not to damage a wax raid.
Make multiple copies echeverias in the spring or in the summer seeds and vegetativno.
Seeds sow in mix of peat and sand (1:1) at the end of February or the beginning of March, cover with glass or a film. Further maintain temperature of 20 - 23 degree, periodically moisten soil and air a small greenery. In 10 - 14 days shoots appear. The grown-up seedlings dive in an easy pochvosmes and grow.
But generally practice reproduction by means of sheet shanks and affiliated sockets, and semi-shrubby forms make multiple copies also top shanks.
The leaf separated from a plant well takes roots in the friable soil or sand. But not all echeverias rather easily breed by such method. Affiliated sockets - the most reliable way. For this purpose cut off the socket, slightly dry within 8 - 12 hours, then place in the damp soil or sand. It is desirable to process cuts charcoal. The young plant received in such a way blossoms in the same year, and grown up from a leaf - at 2 - 4 summer age.
Most often - fans occurs at flower growers the Echeveria graceful (Echeveria elegans Rose) - a succulent grassy plant with the thick stalk covered with traces of an attachment of the died-off leaves. At young age it upright, later - polegat and takes roots. Numerous leaves are collected in the dense socket to 15 cm in the diameter, fleshy, sedentary, naked, glaucescent, uzkoobratnoyaytsevidny. On a top of a leaf there is a small edge. Affiliated sockets appear from bosoms of leaves on the extended escapes. Flowers it is red - yellow, are collected in the clustery inflorescences to 20 cm in length leaving bosoms of the top leaves.
An echeveria agavovidny (Echeveria agavoides) - a perennial plant up to 30 cm high. Leaves are thick, ovoid or extended, pointed, with brown tips, light-a lime shade, with age reddening, up to 8 cm long. Form dense, multi-leaved sockets. Flowers not numerous, pink scale.
An echeveria gorbatotsvetny (Echeveria gibbiflora) - a plant with a thick, upright stalk, sometimes slightly branched. Leaves are collected in the friable top socket, fleshy, very large (up to 15 - 30 cm long), obratnoyaytsevidno - lopatchaty, light-is gray - green. Flowers on a long tsvetonos, light-red, are collected on 30 - 60 pieces in a difficult clustery inflorescence. Kinds of this echeveria meet with it is reddish - bronze leaves.
the Echeveria - rather easy plant in culture, but at violation of an agrotechnology can arise some problems:
The echeveria grows slowly, leaves small - or the pot became close and the plant lacks food, or insufficient watering. It is necessary to modify these moments - to replace to the fresh soil and a bigger pot, or to increase watering and to feed up regularly.
Leaves are pale, the sockets extended - a lack of light, it is necessary to move a plant on well lit place.
Leaves are wrinkled, sockets contract - it occurs during a heat at an acute shortage of moisture in the soil. Urgent plentiful watering is necessary.
Leaves at the basis are softened, easily separate, decay is the gray decay caused by remoistening of the soil and stagnation of water in a pot. Can arise also in attempt of a cherenkovaniye of a plant in the winter in a dormant period. At strong defeat it is simpler to throw out a plant, than to treat. But if still there is a chance, then cut off a healthy top and implant.
From wreckers the echeveria can be surprised a root chervets and a gallovy nematode for fight against which use the corresponding preparations.
Echeverias, thanks to the original appearance and unusual inflorescences, are widely used for decoration of an interior both in single landings, and by drawing up compositions of succulents with use of a stone. It is possible to land them in a garden on the Alpine hills as annual plants, for the winter - to dig out and keep in the light cool room.