Tulip: what its history?
can Quite often be met advertisements under headings: “Holland - the country of tulips“; “Turkey - the country of tulips“; “Ottawa - the capital of tulips“. Actually the homeland of these fine flowers - Asia.
The first written mentions of them belong to the XI-XII centuries. Drawing of a tulip is found in the hand-written bible text of that time. In the east spoke: “This flower has no smell as a beautiful peacock - songs. But the tulip became famous for colourful petals, also as an important peacock - unusual plumage“. And many legends about it reached us from time immemorial.
Conversation on history of its cultivation should be begun with Persia where the flower initially was called “äþëüáàø“, that is no other than a turban. After Hafizas expressed it so: “The rose cannot be even compared to its virgin charm“.
From Persia the tulip got to Turkey where it was very much fallen in love by sultans. They suited the whole flower carpets in the gardens. Under the open sky on these carpets released late evenings during feasts turtles to whose backs the lit candles and when those began to move were attached, there was an enchanting show.
After monarchs, starting with Suleyman the First (1494 - 1566), notable grandees were fond of tulips. By the period of government of Ahmed III (1703 - 1730) tulips won first place by quantity of the grown-up colors, and this time was later is called “Time of tulips“. Began first in the history of a tyulpanomaniye flower.
It was necessary to enter very strict laws on landings and sale of flowers. For example, to forbid purchase or their sale out of the capital. It admitted a crime which was punished by exile from the country. Began to say that the flower is appreciated above human life.
The tulip got to Europe in 2 - y to a half of the 16th century thanks to Ogir Gizelin de Bousbec`s (Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq) efforts, the ambassador Austrian emperor Ferdinand in the Ottoman Empire. It was perfectly educated person who was interested in history, archeology and biology, liked to travel.
In traveling notes he wrote about a tulip so: “Having been bored stiff day in Adrianople, we moved further to reach already close Constantinople. In way to us the set of narcissuses, hyacinths and flowers which Turks call to “tulipa“ … met everywhere the tulip does not smell at all or publishes only very weak aroma. Turks carefully take care of these flowers. At all their thrift they can pay big money for especially beautiful flower“.
In the report sent to Vienna, de Bousbec reported about tulips, and then sent party of bulbs and seeds where their began to grow up in the Vienna garden of herbs directed by professor of botany K. Kluzius. The prominent scientist was fond of selection and sent results of the experiences to numerous friends and acquaintances.
And soon they got to dealers who extended the goods not only across Austria, but also in England, France, the Czech Republic and Germany. Especially actively the Venetian merchants participated in this process. However also theft in royal gardens, and also in the good-natured person`s garden - the selector Kluzius extended.
However, first tulips parted only at the yards of the most high-ranking persons so they became a symbol of wealth and eminence. Among passionate fans of these flowers there were the Austrian emperor Franz II, the cardinal Richelieu and the freethinker Voltaire, the French king Louis XVIII. The last even arranged tulip holidays in Versailles on which the best-known fans of flowers and gardeners exposed the rarities.
In Holland the first copies of tulips appeared in 1570 when the same K. Kluzius accepted the invitation to work there. The flower was so fallen in love that the mass hobby for it increased in ultraboundary scales, and the tyulpanomaniya began. Alas, it led to the speculation which overflowed the flower market.
The price for one bulb flew up it is impossible, it 4 carts of hay, 4 fattened bulls, the so many fattened pigs, dozen of adult sheep, 4 barrels of beer, 2 barrels of butter, 500 kilograms of cheese, 1 bed, 1 suit and 1 silver cup in addition were equal to the market value of 2 carts of wheat! In the center of Amsterdam still there is a big sound house bought for 3 bulbs.
Dark stockjobbings were with might and main played. Eventually the offer sharply exceeded demand and many states died. Strongly also those who speculated on credit suffered. The government was forced to take nation-wide measures. In April, 1637 the law under which fixed prices on bulbs were established was adopted, any other conditions of transactions on bulbs of tulips admitted harmful, and for speculation serious sentences were imposed. But it is impossible to hold back also that some of the unfortunate victims of a tyulpanomaniya began to hate harmless flowers and began to destroy them ruthlessly. Here such drama … In Russia wild species of tulips grew at
in the 12th century, garden grades were delivered in at Peter I. Bulbs at that time cost much so only wealthy people were able to afford cultivation of these flowers. Collected them the prince Vyazma, the countess Zubova, the industrialist Demidov, the count Razumovsky. And only at the end of the 19th century mass production of tulips directly in Russia, in Sukhumi was organized.