In total - on parade! What is celebrated by Italians on June 2?
Italians, Expressional, inclined to theatrical effects, received a national holiday, Day of the Republic , as they say, without “noise and dust“. So what even the song you will not put: On June 2, 1946 held a public referendum and by a majority vote refused the monarchist system existing within 85 years in favor of republican board.
The post-war political situation developed highly for peaceful succession of events in the country: revolution was not necessary, and it was not necessary “to take the Bastille“ or “to storm Smolny“.
Why the people of Italy which reverentially read magnificent titles and loud ranks preferred to live in the parliamentary republic, but not in the kingdom? Were the reason for that both the monarchy, and rough, tragic events of the XX century in Europe. whether
Everything can kings?
the Last king of Italy Victor Emmanuil III coming from the Savoy dynasty came to the throne in 1900. It was well educated person but who is very closed and deprived of qualities of the sure leader of the nation necessary for the monarch. Besides, sometimes excessive care not to tell indecision, did not allow it to gain authority of own citizens and to get support of strong world powers.
For the sake of justice it is worth reminding, as the period in the history which dropped out on its board was difficult: Europe endured an economic crisis and raged from revolutionary passions. World War I which Italy left “the winner without victory“ strongly compromised the king and his government before the people.
And in Russia power was seized by Bolsheviks, and many Italians dreamed to rise under red banners: there was a threat of repetition of violent overthrow of the monarchy in Italy. Victor Emmanuil III was unable to cope independently with economic ruin in the post-war country and communistic moods of the people. Therefore he chose the smallest of the evils and handed over the reins Benito Mussolini`s state, to the leader of recently arisen movement of fascists.
To tell more precisely, aggressive and resolute Mussolini himself “took“ the power in hand, and the king undertook nothing to prevent newly appeared Duch. Such self-elimination from a country government was one of sins with which the king was reproached subsequently by many historians. Though it is quite probable, in those conditions it was under pressure and from the ministers, and from the U.S. Government which obviously patronized fascists, pursuing own interests.
Anyway, Mussolini, having begun a reorganization of control systems and economy, brought Italy out of prolonged crisis. The monarchy remained, but Victor Emmanuil was actually excluded from political and public life of the state. He devoted all the time to a family (it was happy in marriage and had five children), reading, hunting and fishing.
Mussolini treated scornfully the king and did not even hide it: portraits of the monarch were replaced with portraits Duch, shots with his participation were cut out from movies. Victor Emmanuil did not oppose to the situation and did not object to decisions of the fascist government. Such conciliation with humiliation of the monarchy, and also approval of aggressive policy of Mussolini extremely negatively affected prestige of a royal dynasty in the opinion of Italians.
Only in 1943 when the unenviable position of Italy became obvious at the front, Victor Emmanuil, having remembered the crown, began negotiations with the management of allied troops of Great Britain and the USA on Mussolini`s discharge from the power. In exchange he wanted one: preservations of the monarchy. Same year the king, having secured with support of strong powers, demanded resignation already broken by failures Duch.
In 1945 Italy which is again ruined and captured by political disorders finished World War II. By this time cooperation with fascists so compromised a name of Victor Emmanuil that his participation in a country government was not even considered. It transferred functions of the head of state to the successor of a dynasty Humberto and absolutely moved away from affairs.
On May 9, 1946 the aged king renounced a crown in favor of the son. However, this step could not rescue the monarchy any more: actually in the first post-war years the coalition government consisting of representatives of a resistance movement directed the country.
A month later in June most of Italians voted for declaration of the republic and made the decision to expel royal family from Italy. Victor Emmanuil III died next year in the Egyptian Alexandria at the age of 78 years. Only in 2003 allowed his descendants entry into the country.
In 1945 - 47 years the people of Italy were very ready to build “bright future“ together with communists of the won USSR: the most mass were communistic and socialist parties. Certainly, such situation did not suit in any way the USA and Great Britain which already “expected“ cold war. Therefore helped the people to choose freedom and democracy: they made the proposal which Italians could not refuse.
Namely: financial subsidies (3,2 billion dollars) allocated according to “the Plan of Marshall“ for recovery of the destroyed economy. As a result, the Constitution which took effect on January 1, 1948 legislatively fixed democratic, with parliamentary system of board, a way of development of the Italian state.
Long live Republic!
the Legislature Italy, Parliament, consists of the senate (315 elected senators, 11 of which - for life) and the Chambers of Deputies (630 members - representatives of political parties). Executive power is a President and council of ministers.
The parliament elects the President of the Republic of Italy for a period of 7 years who is the official head of the government. The president, in turn, appoints the prime minister - the minister from approval of parliament, and also lifelong senators and some members of the Constitutional court.
In April, 1948 the first parliamentary elections took place and the coalition government of “four parties“ where Christian democrats entered is created, sotsiat - democrats, republicans and liberals. In 1949 Italy was a part of NATO. It is also the member of the European Union and a number of the organizations of the Western European cooperation. Since 1955 - the member of the UN.
At 50-60 - x years the prompt growth of economy turned Italy in advanced industrially - the agrarian power. By the beginning 90 - x years the state took the fifth place in the world on production of GDP.
Of course, not everything is so smooth in political life of the country: race for power left and right (even loud political murders of party figures), corruption among officials, financial scandals. In economy obvious lag of the agrarian South from the industrial North is observed.
Nevertheless, the republican board affected positively welfare of the population of Italy: the standard of living considerably grew, and the stable middle class was created. Though Italians also love is noisy to show discontent with the government, but the majority of them would hardly leave the country forever.
All - on parade!Day of the Republic of Italy as the national holiday is celebrated by
since 2000. In the large cities arrange military parades. The ceremony in the state capital - Rome differs in special solemnity: on the avenue from an imperial forum to the bottom of the Capitol there pass columns of representatives of armed forces of the state. The brightest show of a holiday - the planes which are flying by in the sky leaving behind the mark painted in colors of national flag.
For Italians on June 2 is one more day off which can be spent in the bosom of the family and friends.