Armenia in the III millennium BC
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the Senior research associate of Institute of oriental studies NAN RA, the associate professor of history EGU, the candidate of historical sciences Artak Movsesyan in an epilog to recently published work “ Armenia in the III millennium to R. H. (according to written sources) “ (Yerevan, 2005) writes: “ B written in 1930 - x years of “History of Armenia“ the historian Nikolay Adonts, analyzing data of several inscriptions known at that time, claimed: “Actually for us there are absolutely dark a name and destiny of Armenia of Sumer - an akkadsky era “. Fortunately, in the next decades the works considerably shedding light on the ancient history of our people were created. Among them and Artak Movsisyan`s work: “The most ancient state in Armenia: Aratta“ (1992), “Empire of pious tsars: the centenary empire to Tigran Veliky“ (1997), “Sacred uplands: Armenia in the most ancient spiritual perceptions of the Lobby of Asia“ (2000; 2004), “Systems of writing of domashtotsky Armenia“ (2003), “The Armenian hieroglyphics“ (2003) etc. “Armenia in the III millennium to R. H. (according to written sources)“ finishes this cycle so far.
- Whether it is possible to consider your latest work as a peculiar result of the previous researches? In what their basic feature?
- Found distribution in 2 - y to a half of the 19th century the theory of a prishlost of Armenians on the Armenian Highlands, being wrong in itself, caused a serious loss to an armenovedeniye. In particular, many important data relating to the III-II millennia to R. H. were artificially alienated from our history or interpreted mistakenly. Little changed also in 1970 - 1980 when the moderate criticism of this theory was permitted. The stereotypic thinking does not give in and today.
In 2004. The institute of history of NAN R under the auspices of the government got to work over 4 - languid history of Armenia, and it was offered to me to write the section “Armenia in the III millennium to R. H. (according to written sources)“. Having got to work, I unexpectedly for myself found out that the number of primary sources - inscriptions exceeds 100 though in a scientific turn no more than ten are used...
- What sources are?
- First of all I will note that the primary sources relating to the ancient history of Armenia are found as in the territory of the most Armenian Highlands, and almost in all countries of Forward Asia having writing that testifies to an important role which was played by our country in the region in ancient times.
sources can be divided into several main groups: 1) inscriptions, modern to the events mentioned in them; 2) copies of the most ancient originals; 3) the historical compositions created on the basis of texts of the previous eras; 4) works of the historian - art character (especially epic); 5) texts of economic, administrative and other character.
- In chapter 1 of your work the important place is given to chronology. How it is possible to specify dates of these or those events of “immemorial“ times? by
- Works on specification of chronology of the Ancient East are carried out more than 100 years. Here very important role is played by astronomy. The centers of ancient writing surely specified in what year what there were heavenly phenomena - we will tell, an eclipse of the sun or moon, emergence of comets which are quite easily specified by means of astronomy today. So, at the end of the first Kutiysky empire of the Armenian Highlands it is mentioned that during crowning of the last tsar by the name of Tirikan there was a moon eclipse, and in 40 days after that its power fell. Several decades ago the Soviet orientalists addressed to Institute of theoretical physics of Academy of Sciences of the USSR with a request to specify this date, and it turned out that these events took place in 2109
of - Primary sources, undoubtedly, help you to solve a number of the historian - geographical and topographical questions which are connected with the name of our Homeland. What names and what their geography are?
- their set. The famous first name which is submitted to us as the most ancient state education in primary sources of Entre Rios is known as Aratta which was on the Armenian Highlands and is identified with bible Ararat / Ayastan. For the historian - geographical specification at our disposal there are exact arguments. For example, from Aratta floated across Euphrates to the Sumer city-state of Uruk... Aratta in this territory was known as the highland, and from the Armenian Highlands to the Persian Gulf Euphrates flows only on the plain, therefore, Aratta had to be on the Armenian Highlands. Or, say, the road from Sumer to Aratta passes across Northern Entre Rios on areas Zamua, Hurum, etc. leaves to the southern areas of the Armenian Highlands.
Is a set of data on Armani`s country (it is a name proforma Armenia) - is mentioned it from 24 - 23 centuries BC. There are many data belonging Subur / Subarta who is identified with Armani to the country. It continued to be mentioned till the period of the Vansky kingdom. To Armani and Arma (or Armi) were so often identified with Subur that even in textbooks are written as her difficult name to Arma - Shubria. It was widespread and today: we our country call Ayastan, Georgians - Somkheti, British - Armenia etc. In the III millennium to R. H. Armenia called Aratt - primary form of Ararat, Subur - during later period - to Subart, Armani and Booze (from the most ancient name of Korduk) and since inhabitants of Dvurechya, communicating with Ayastan, met area Korduk that on her name so in the beginning called all country. Aratt`s
was identified with Subur, sometimes written with Subur`s ideogram. And if the name of one country is written with the ideogram of other country, it means that these both names belong to the same country. An identification, on the one hand, Aratta / Subur, with another - Armani / Subur shows that Aratta, Armani and Subur - different names of the same country. Since 26 century BC also the name of Haya (Haya) is mentioned, and it meets and as the name of the tribe, and as the name of the country, and as the name of a mythological deity. The Haya was considered as god of wisdom, on mythology of Entre Rios he from clay on God`s similarity created the human race. Movses Horenatsi, referring on Mar Abasa to Katin, writes that for the first time from gods there was a family of titans, one of whom was Ike Naapet (the patriarch of Hayk). But what son of god was Ike, the Armenian legend holds back it. And according to primary sources of Entre Rios it becomes clear that Ayik - Ike Naapet had to be god Haya`s son (Aya). The termination “ik“ except diminutive and caressing specifies as well accessory. Ayik - meant god`s son - the Armenian, the son of the tribe of Armenians.
B shumersko - akkadsky bilingual inscriptions of Haya (Aya), Subur and Armani are equivalent, i.e. the ancient names given to Armenia and Armenians - ouch, Armen, Aratta, Subur - meet since 26 century BC. Subsequently the name of Haya continues to be mentioned at a turn of the III-II millennia to R. H. in ashursky texts, and later in hettsky sources Armenia will be renamed into Hayas, then into Hayastan. “Huy“ - is more often the self-name of Armenia, and later in the Persian sources is mentioned in Armin`s form, other people it will be called by Armenia, Arminia, Ermani, Ermanistan etc. of
“Country the Ararat“ - it the name is generally used in fiction now, and earlier it was the historical term. That is since the III millennium to R. H. we have accurate equivalent names of Armenians and Armenia that proves once again: Armenians as independent ethnic unit took place in the III millennium to R. H. and Armenia was mentioned by the different people and the centers of various civilizations under those names by which we continued to be called throughout long centuries, call and today.
- It is supposed that ancient inscriptions have to report only a fractional information of rather political history and geography of the III millennium to R. H. How in them the historical geography of the Armenian Highlands and the adjacent countries is outlined?
- it is difficult for i to give to the general answer. It is necessary to specify about what era there is a speech. Naturally, during the millennia political units did not remain constants. In 28 - 27 centuries of the III millennium in the south of Entre Rios there was a Sumer state, in Central Entre Rios - the country of Uri which disappeared subsequently, and instead of it Akkad, in the north of Aratt - Subur appeared. Areas to the West from Entre Rios are known as Amur or Mart that is meant by the “Western“ country, and the Mediterranean Sea is called “The sea of the country Amur“, or “The big sea of the West“. To the East from Entre Rios - the country Zamua, to the South from the lake Urmia is mentioned also Elam - today it is Hugo - the western areas of Iran. In 24 - 23 centuries to R. H. this geography completely changes. In Central Entre Rios appears the first mighty Semitic gain - the Akkadsky state which wins the territory of Sumer and Shumero - the Akkadsky kingdom forms.
we were reached by the interesting document of this period which conditionally is called the geographical text of Sargonsky dominion where a large number of the states is presented. Euphrates the city-state of Mari, the mountain of Lebanon, area under the name to Yarimut, Silver mountains (the mountain of the Tauri) are mentioned only in a river basin. The geography changes in times to Plank beds - Suyena. If primary sources carry 28 - 27 centuries BC the historian - epic character, i.e. the historical geography is not presented to them in detail, then in texts of 24 - 23 centuries the geography of invasions and campaigns is in detail described. Five maps are presented in the monograph.
- You touched also upon a subject of an origin of the Armenian statehood.
- Unfortunately, primary sources foreign, they do not give us the chance to learn the Armenian Highlands from within - its state system, economy, etc.
Nevertheless the remained material gives the chance to conclude that, for example, during Aratta`s era the country the Supreme priest - the tsar directed, the country had the verkhovno - consultative meeting of elders, the high-ranking economic official - the managing director, nalogovzimatel, supervisors are mentioned, and it means that the state conducted economic policy. The states are very similar to drevnevostochny city-states. On the Armenian Highlands areas or principalities which in ancient texts are called as the countries were united in the unions.
can call them federations Today. For example, 17 countries which together overthrew the power of the tyrant Naram - Suyena were united in the Kutiysky era and nearly hundred years dominated in the territory stretching to the Persian Gulf. The federation of the Nairiysky states in the II millennium to R. H had the same device. They were connected both ethnically, and spiritually - culturally. And, naturally, they had common interests for fight against strangers. And the Nairiysky states are mentioned in the II millennium to R. H., and at the beginning of the I millennium to R. H., in the 9th century when the Vansky kingdom united federations and the state formed a single whole, his first tsar Sarduri I as inscriptions testify, proclaims himself the tsar of the country Nairi.
- Falsifiers of history became our “inseparable fellow travelers“. What do they think of your researches?
- Nobody published any denials of my works and researches yet. In radio - and an air only approving responses sounded. My books are published also in other languages, against was not printed a uniform line. I was reached only by gossips to which I do not pay attention. I publicly declared: if someone reasonably proves that Aratta on the Armenian Highlands was not, I invite him to public discussion. If are able to prove it or to find at least one falsification in my works, I am ready to burn my works publicly.
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