What traditional receptions were used by our ancestors at construction of wooden buildings?
On the high hill, having risen over the small Karelian village Manga, the fourth century there is a chapel of Christmas of the Virgin. Much water has flowed under the bridges in the small river which named the settlement, many generations were replaced in houses that is cost along its coast, and wooden crosses still, as well as a century ago, last up, to the sky which is constantly changing the mood from is transparent - blue to lead - gray.
Here so our ancestors built. For ages. Perhaps the word what special, zagovorny was known. Not without it. Perhaps also knew.
But, most likely, it is not it. In another. Just knew how to build. How to make so that built by you many decades and when - and centuries, not only as belief and the truth served people, but also pleased them with the beauty not striking, but expensive to their heart.
And if who happens to pass through Mangu - be not too lazy, climb an abrupt slope of the hill on its top, to a chapel, bypass it, look narrowly attentively … It is sure, to you much of those carpenter`s secrets which were owned by our ancestors will open.
A felling of the majority of wooden constructions, especially cult, for increase in term of their service built “in povat“ - when in the top part of a felling each subsequent wreath was cut from longer logs, than previous. Respectively, the size of wreaths that is visible even visually, at advance up, to a building roof, gradually increased, and the felling as if “fell“. From that and such interesting name of this construction reception.
It became in order that the roof slope which is at the same time serving and a drain as it is possible further departed from a wall of a felling and took away from it the main enemies of wood - rain and thawed snow.
Protection of a tree against moisture, in general - one of the main objectives facing builders in wooden architecture. Ways of its decision could be the most different.
Protective carved plates - the prichelina playing at the same time and a role of jewelry were attached to face parts of wooden designs of a roof. In a mangsky chapel, for example, on them the planimetric and extraction carving is executed.
At a fastening of logs among themselves, the fixing groove was chosen in the top log which as an oblo cap closed itself the lower wreath, and rain (or thawed snow) moisture rolled down the top wreath, without being late in lower. In wooden constructions of earlier periods the dredging type “in a bowl“ when the semicircular groove was chosen in a log of the lower wreath was applied. Respectively, all rain water accumulated in a bowl of the lower wreaths which from it quickly decayed. Therefore among themselves it is possible to determine approximate time of construction of a mangsky chapel which is dated back to the second half of the 18th century by the principle of their cabin and a fastening of logs.
One of types of technology of construction of a bezgvozdevy roof, traditional for wooden architecture, when as rafters served the whole trunks of young fir-trees with the root part kept by the builder - “chickens“, and was called - “on chickens and streams“. As “stream“ at the same time served the hollowed log withheld by speakers root parts of “chicken“ longitudinal - a beam, from below supporting roofing tesina. From above, to the fad, pressed them a pricker, or in a different way - okhlupen, a massive log with the groove chosen from below.
Absolutely other type of a bezgvozdevy roof was applied at construction of “onions“ of wooden churches and chapels. This technology was called “on zhuravets and curve pieces“.
Zhuravtsa on certain templates were cut out from strong, four about a centimeters thick, boards which wooden nagelyam fastened to the central column which was at the same time forming the basis for fastening of a cross. Fixing of zhuravts was made by the horizontal curve pieces which are also cut out on a template from the same thick boards - is close. The distance between them, a so-called step, was defined depending on the ploughshare size - the small, bent in a form central boards aspen plate, cut out by special “small fence“, for the subsequent fastening of plates among themselves.
Besides - for fight against rain and thawed moisture, fixing of a ploughshare on an onion and the arrangement of their layers on it was selected so that water could not flow “towards to“ the stacked layer in any way.
By the way, deciduous wood in wooden architecture, generally, was used extremely seldom. The aspen as roofing material is chosen as owing to length of the fibers that allowed to bend it, but, unlike a pine or a fir-tree, not to break, and from - for original optical properties. At hit on an aspen plate of a ray of sunlight under a different corner color of a plate changes. Therefore at different times days of an onion of wooden churches have different coloring: silvery, bluish, crimson...
And it is one more of the fundamental principles of wooden architecture. Any element of a wooden design has to be at the same time practical, strong and beautiful. That already all construction in general could carry out not only purely utilitarian, but also esthetic function.
The Mangsky chapel - one of confirmations to that. Not one hundred years to it. And it - costs. Also pleases us not striking, but from that with not less remarkable beauty.
And still will stand. Not one decade. Of course, at careful attitude to it. At us and on firewood it is not necessary to sort a lot of time - …