Genius of architecture Mimar Sinan (16th century) of
Mimar Sinan (on April 15, 1489, Caesarea (automated workplace. Mazhak), Anatoly (the Western Armenia) - on February 7, 1588, Constantinople) - the ingenious Turkish architect of the Armenian origin. The best-known of the Turkish architects and engineers of the Ottoman period. Created more than 300 magnificent architectural monuments which became subsequently national property of Turkey. The Turkish name Abdulmennan to an ogl Sinaneddin Yusuf, is known also as Hodge Mimar Sinan Aga (mister teacher architect Sinan) and Mimar Sinan (architect Sinan). Since 1538 directed construction works at the sultan Suleyman I, building mosques, strengthenings, bridges and other constructions. A mention of Armenian origin the architect in Turkey in the middle of the 20th century was not welcomed.
According to nektory data, Sinan was brought to Istanbul as a result of the order which just came to the throne of Selim the First (1512) who declared a set in army and in Anatoly as well as was in Rumeli. Sinan was sent to society of study and education “Adzhemi Oglanlar“ where soldiers - beginners were trained. In 1514 he became the participant of Chaldyransky war, and between 1516 - 20 was in number of participants of expedition to Egypt. In the period of Syuleyman the First (Kanuni`s) government participated in military campaigns to Belgrade (1521) and Rhodes (1522). It was presented by command to the officer`s rank. After the Mokhachsky campaign of 1526, became the head of military technicians of Ottoman army . Being in this position, Bagdat and Tiflis took part in campaigns to Vienna (1529), Germany (1529 - 32), Iraq (1532 - 1535). During the last campaign, he directed construction of three ships which were necessary for transition through Wang the sky lake and Sinan who brilliantly coped with this task was recommended for a decoration of HASEKI UNVANA. In 1536 participated in the Pulsky campaign, and during the Karabuzdansky campaign (Moldova) Sinan for several days built the most difficult the bridge through the river Prut, than and riveted on himself close attention. A year later after Adzhem Ali`s death it was recommended for a position of the chief architect of the sultan palace. And performing very hard work which lies on the Ministry of Reconstruction and the Reconstruction today, Sinan remained in this position to the death.
Mimar Sinan was as the chief architect of the sultan palace at three padishahs: Syuleyman the First (Kanuni), Selim the Second and Murad Tretyego was also a projector of constructions of architecture which represented power of the empire.
Sinan designed and carried out construction more than 350 objects among which 84 mosques, 52 small mosques, 52 madrasahs, 7 schools, 22 mausoleums, the 17th imaret, 3 daryushshyuf, 7 dams, 8 bridges, the 20th caravan - sheds, 35 palaces, 6 barns, 48 baths. If to take in attention that was worked by him the chief architect of the palace about 50 years, then it is difficult to imagine that he managed to design and organize the embodiment of such quantity of units of architecture.
The main architectural constructions created by Sinan gave the chance to lead architectural style of the Ottoman Empire to the class of classics. Its first considerable construction is the mosque to ``Shekhzada`` in Istanbul. This construction costs on four pedestals which are covered with the dome supported by four semi-domes. The aim to create inside the light room was pursued. In created after this mosque ``Mikhrimakh Sultan`` number of semi-domes it was reduced to three at the expense of what the spacious internal room was received. The most considerable architectural construction of the Ottoman Empire is the mosque ``Syuleymaniye``. This construction represents the dome put on four legs - the base. The entrance is supported to a floor by domes.
Domes and semi-domes smoothly transfer loading of the following part of a construction. This work of architecture towers on one of hills of Istanbul which is turned towards the Gold Horn. Syuleymaniye in whose construction all prominent persons of architectural art of the empire of that time took part represents harmonious architectural ansaml. The fact that this miracle of architecture was constructed in 7 years, speaks about Sinan`s abilities, both the architect, and the organizer. Today in hands of historians there are blotters of expenses on construction of this construction. They are the invaluable testimony of scope of works.
To find that basis which would hold the building and the top, ceremonial system of a construction the set of engineering tests was made, sometimes even addressed methods of ancient builders, studying and applying the forgotten experience in the creativity. As sources testify, Sinan in parallel made several technical experiments at once, always was in creative search. Therefore its works, everyone in own way was original, for example, the mosque ``Sinan Pasch`` which is in Istanbul which is put on the six-sided base, but reminds the trihedral edirninsky mosque `` Yuch of a seferla ``. Is at it and the mosque which are built in style of the mosque ``Mukhrimakh Sultan``, relating by the time of early works of architecture of the Ottoman Empire, feature of what is the covering one dome of the central room of a construction.
One of its bright, experimental works is the Istanbul mosque of ``Pijale Pasch``.
All these its tests are remembered because all of them lead the researcher to his remarkable work, to the edirninsky mosque ``Selimiye``. This work of architecture deservedly is considered unique because Sinan embodied the old idea which he tried to embody in the Istanbul mosque ``Ruestem Pasch``, namely posazheny domes on an octahedron skillfully it managed that in this construction. Thus, the pedestal - the carrier became thinner because the weight pressing on it decreased also in the structure giving feeling of ease and a scope, the central room gained value of a body. Sinan applied the dome having a diameter of 31 meters that is the largest dome applied by it in the structures here. Other structures of a construction are removed on a background, in comparison with the main building.
The fact that Sinan continued the creative experiments is visible also in construction of mausoleums. At construction of the mausoleum ``Shekhzade Mehmet`` it used a compound dome and addressed to unusual for those times, an elegant front list. And in the mausoleum ``Syuleyman Kanuni``, for the purpose of achievement of art balance between internal the room and appearance, he resorted to a two-color dome which was often applied in osmanla - tyursky architecture and put an internal dome on legs - pedestals of the internal room, and the external dome established on external walls. And in construction of the mausoleum of Selim the Second, he, instead of traditional six and octahedral pedestals, chose option of the bases - corners at which all parts of a construction were equally significant.
Sinan not only was a master in architecture, but also conducted careful researches of a site, features of the base, in compliance with a location of object and the forthcoming construction.
Sinan`s constructions are considerable, both from the point of view of architecture, and from the point of view of engineering skill. Therefore it was called ``it is gray mimyaryan - y to Jihan Va myukhendisyan - y devran`` (bossing all architects and engineers on light and at all times). What its structures still cost and even continue to be in active use, says that Sinan paid special attention not only to the main base on which all weight of a design, but also the soil on which the object was put fell.
Engineering skill of Sinan is also evident in his bridges and dams which personified all achievements of engineering thought of the time and even went beyond these limits. He created a unique water supply system, of 50 km. called ``Kyrkcheshm`` in which there are both tunnels, and ostoynik, and channels, and ponds - cleaners, and ponds - kachatel of water which was created for providing Istanbul with fresh water. If 53 million to an akcha were spent for construction of the mosque of Syuleymaniye, then in construction ``Kyrkcheshm`` it was spent a little less - 43 million that proves value of this construction for those times and its scope.
Sinan though did not attach significance to the bridges, but always remembered with pride the bridge ``Byuyyukchekmedzhe kyopryusyu`` which was stretched on 635,5 meters and was strong and beautiful.
He managed to calculate such dome which managed to cover the widest space, managed to create the narrowest and high tower to which it brought three separate ladders which did not adjoin among themselves that can be characterized as creation of the genius of engineering art.
The ingenious architect Mimar Sinan in Istanbul died on February 7, 1588.
Is buried on a Suleymaniye Mosque cemetery.
in honor of Sinan is called a crater on Mercury.
B was given to 1982 of the Istanbul State Academy of Arts his name.
The mention of the Armenian origin of the ingenious architect in Turkey is not welcomed.
of CREATION of SINAN:
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Shekhzade Mehmet`s Mosque, 1543 - 1548, Istanbul;
The mosque Ryustem Pashy, 1544 - 55, Takhtakale - Istanbul;
mausoleum Barabaros Hayrettin of Pashy, 1546, Istanbul;
baths Hayrettin Pashy (Repaired to boors), 1546, Zeyrek - Istanbul;
Mikhrimakh Sultan`s mosque, 1547 - 48, Uskyudar - Istanbul;
School Ryustem Pashy, 1550, Chagaloglu - Istanbul;
Syuleymaniye`s mosque (Blue mosque), 1550 - 57, Istanbul;
The mosque Mahmoud Pashy, 1551 - 66, Eyyub - Istanbul;
The mosque Sinan Pashy, 1553 - 55, Besiktas - Istanbul;
water system to Kyrkcheshma, 1555 - 63, Alibey Kyoyyu - Istanbul;
Haseki Hyurrem Sultan`s baths, 1556, Sultanakhmet - Istanbul;
a caravan - a shed Ryushtem Pashy, 1560, Edirne;
Mikhrimakh Sultan`s mosque, 1562 - 65, Edirnekapy - Istanbul;
Mosque Sokullu Mehmet of Pashy, 1564 - 69, Lyuleburgaz;
Byuyyukchekmedzhe Bridge, 1566 - 68, Istanbul;
a caravan - Sultan Syuleyman`s shed, 1566 - 67, Byuyyukchekmedzhe - Istanbul;
Selimiye Mosque, 1567 - 75, Edirne;
The mosque Sokullu Mehmet of Pashy, 1571 - 71, Kadyrga - Istanbul;
Piale Pashy mosque, 1573 - 75, Kasympasha - Istanbul;
Sultan Selim the Second mausoleum, 1574 - 77, Sacred Sofia - Istanbul;
The mosque Sokullu Mehmet of Pashy, 1577 - 78, Azarkapy - Istanbul;
The mosque Walid Sultan, 1577 - 83, Yuskyudar - Istanbul;
The summer Palace of Murat the Third, 1578, the Topkapi Palace - Istanbul;
Kylych Ali`s mosque of Pashy, 1580, Yuskyudar - Istanbul.
was prepared by Gayk K.