Nevsky Avenue: what pershpektiva? Where there cannot be a termination
How many describe Nevsky Avenue, everything will be a little. The candy store to which A. Pushkin often went and where came last time - directly before duel stayed behind scenes. From this candy store the poet with the second went to the Black Small river. Only on a site from the Admiralty to Anichkov Bridge Nevsky decorates 21 architectural monuments - and these are monuments of a Pushkin era!
W. W. Engelgardt`s House (Pushkin`s friend) stays behind scenes, balls (a scene of action of lermontovsky “Masquerade“) rattled there, there was “A temple of charms, or the Mechanical, physical and optical office“ of the illusionist Gamuletsky, Beethoven with a question of the purchase of “A solemn mass“ directed the letter there (Alexander I and the prince Nikolay Golitsyn bought). Now this house is connected with philharmonic hall and with metro station.
In the house at the Armenian church (Church of St. Catherine, the Nevsky 40 - 42, is constructed by the Armenian community in 1771) there lived F. Tyutchev. Exactly there he wrote become to well-known: “Mind not to understand Russia“.
Peter I began to involve foreign experts to a city building and fleet. Those arrived with families. People needed to pray somewhere, children needed to study. So on Nevsky Avenue Catholic and Lutheran churches appeared.
The Catholic temple Catherine of Alexandria`s Saint (The Nevsky 32 - 34, construction it is begun in 1763) was constructed for Italians, French and Poles. The temple, as well as the Armenian church is consecrated, was in honor of Saint Ekaterina that is not surprising - gesture of politeness of communities towards Catherine the Great. There Adam Mickiewicz coming to Russia, Honore de Balzac, Theophil Gaultier, Alexandre Dumas, Franz Liszt prayed. There the last Polish king and the French marshal Jean Victor Moreau - the associate, then Napoleon`s opponent was buried. In this temple Georges Dantes - Pushkin`s murderer, got married Ekaterina Goncharova - the sister of the wife of Pushkin. Petrikirkhe and Petrishule`s
Lutheran Church of Saints Pyotr and Petrikirkhe was put by
in 1728 for Lutherans, generally the Germans who were on service in the Russian Empire. The competition took place, in it won Alexander Bryullov`s project - the elder brother artist Karl Bryullov.
At Lutheran church of Saint Peter the German school was founded, too Saint Peter - nowadays it is the oldest (about 1709) and, perhaps, best-known school in St. Petersburg (Petrishule, or Petershule). This school behind “a pick on a pershpektiva“ - actually the coeval of the city.
Soon in it began to teach also Russian. With languages at school the situation always was very well. For example, in Petrishule the figure of the French revolution, the traveler (the second global cruise of J. Cook) and the naturalist George Forster studied. The thirteen-year-old boy it translated from Russian M. Lomonosov`s book “The short Russian chronicler“ (it is at once published in London).
The famous scientists of the time - both “technicians“, and language and literature teachers taught in Petrishule. It is enough to call Alexander Galich (not that whom all know, and A. Pushkin`s teacher in Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum, it in every possible way promoted early the shown talent of the poet).
The list of surnames of the famous graduates of this school will occupy not one page - and it characterizes education level. Many military figures, participants of Patriotic war of 1812 studied in it (the admiral P. V. Chichagov, the general and the Decembrist M. Fonvizin, the ensign, the poet and the Decembrist F. Vadkovsky, the general, the engineer and the hero of the Sevastopol defense And. Bukhmeyer, vice-the admiral Ludwig Kerber - the father of the aircraft designer A. Kerber). The military historian and the writer, the general - the lieutenant and senator A. I. Mikhaylovsky - Danilevsky also completed a full course of training there.
Petrishule left a huge number of academicians of architecture: Karl Rossi, Konstantin Ton, Nikolay Leontyevich Benois, Maksimilian Mesmakher, Vasily Shaub and others. In it the artist Nikolay Sverchkov (“Clodt of paints“), the great composer Modest Mussorgsky, writers and poets Lev Pushkin (the younger brother of Alexander), P. Vyazemsky, Yu. Lotman, L. Losev, Daniil Kharms, Iosif Brodsky studied. Also names of many actors among which there are Mikhail Kozakov and Nikolay Fomenko are entered. One more famous graduate - Seva Novgorodtsev.
Many scientists studied in Petrishule: the pediatrician Karl Raukhfus, the doctor - the hygienist of the Item. Lesgaft, first ophthalmologist Vasily Frebelius, geographer and researcher of Africa Vasili Juncker, geologist and researcher of the Urals, Altai and Kyrgyzstan Grigory Gelmersen. Through Pitershule there passed many famous Russian zoologists, botanists, chemists, mathematics. All children of P. K. Faberge - the founder of a jeweler dynasty which works are still appreciated around the world also passed through Petrishule.
Without “a Lutheran component“ history of St. Petersburg, all Russian science and culture of 18 - 19 centuries would be absolutely another. And the school continues to live and work with nice number 222. And the name - Petrishule - kept.
On the square having run out, the semicircle Became free
I sprawled the Lord`s temple,
As easy krestovik - a spider .
Majestic decoration, the architectural and semantic center of Nevsky Avenue and St. Petersburg in general - Kazan Cathedral. Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan - the Orthodox cathedral church Sankt - the St. Petersburg diocese.
On the place Christmas - Deiparous church which architect was M. Zemtsov began to build a new cathedral. The competition was won by the architect from serfs - Andrey Voronikhin. The task facing it was clear - the temple had to become “on level“ Saint Peter`s temple in Vatican. You should not compare, of course, but Kazan Cathedral - one of the most grandiose and stately temples in the world.
Finishing of a cathedral was executed by August Montferrand, an image are executed by painters O. Kiprensky, A. Ivanov and others. Concerning the well-known Kazan icon there are various legends.
In Kazan Cathedral military victories of the Russian army, it first of all - the temple of military glory were celebrated. Here accepted also military trophies (a staff of the marshal of the French army, banners, standards, keys from the cities). Here, in the temple, buried M. Kutuzov`s body. Not incidentally before a cathedral monuments to commanders M. I. Kutuzov and M. B. Barclay - - Tolly rise.
After revolution the cathedral, as well as all temples described earlier, was closed, however, there, fortunately, there was neither warehouse, nor the pool, and the Museum of history of religion and atheism was located.
“ How many Othman Paris did not break, and such Nevsky did not break out “.
It is not possible to describe Nevsky Avenue nevertheless in any way, it is as inexhaustible as history of St. Petersburg. And history of the city is directly connected with country history. In St. Petersburg - at once several identical inscriptions which remained from blockade: “Citizens! WHEN SHELLING this side of the street is most DANGEROUS“. One of them on the Nevsky, the house 14.
On the Nevsky inscriptions dazzled,
Shouted each wall,
“Attention! When shelling
this party Is dangerous !
(M. Dudin) of
Three last centuries of the Russian history were weaved on Nevsky Avenue. St. Petersburg is the city which nearly each house can be covered with memorable plates. Houses, however, cost to a thicket “anonymous“ though Petersburgers very much love the city and store memory of it. And stories about this city can have no termination.