Orbeli`s brothers of
Orbeli`s Brothers - some kind of phenomenon, a striking example of the fact that the nature has not always a rest also generously awards with talents all family. Iosif, Leon and Ruben Orbeli spent young years to Tbilisi, graduated in St. Petersburg and devoted all the life to science and culture. They were distinguished by deep professionalism, an entsiklopedichnost of knowledge, unusual organizational talent, high morality.
Orbeli`s brothers were born in an intelligent family. The father, Abgar Iosifovich (Ovsepovich) , came from an ancient princely sort Orbelyanov , graduated from law department of the St. Petersburg university, was a magistrate in Erivani, then the prosecutor in Kutaisi. He married the princess Varvara Movsesovna Argutinskaya - Dolgorukoy (Argutyan - Erkarabazukyan) , the woman the initiative, vigorous, cheerful, doing charity work in children`s shelters of Tiflis giving lessons of playing a piano. Since 1989 Orbeli`s family lived in Tiflis. Abgar Iosifovich was barrister and was engaged in private lawyer practice. The special attention in a family was paid to children, care of development in sons of a broad outlook, their preparation for scientific activity in the future.
Iosif Orbeli at the same time studied at two faculties of the St. Petersburg university: the historian - philological and east languages. In student`s years he intensively was engaged in research work, participated in expeditions and graduated from the university, being the author of nine scientific articles. Among them the articles “Armenian Art“ and “Georgian Art“ written for Brockhaus and Efron`s Dictionary. Still, being a student, he participated in studying of the medieval city of Ania, was the closest employee of the academician N. Ya. Mar. On materials of excavation of I. Orbeli created the Aniysky museum which, unfortunately, after 1917 appeared in the territory of Turkey. It conducted excavation near the lake Wang and in Armenia. For a number of fundamental works Iosif Orbeli in 37 years was elected the corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and in 1935 - the academician. Since 1920 its activity was connected with the Hermitage and in 1934 it became the director of the largest museum of the world. In the years of war when Leningrad was in a ring of blockade, Orbeli refused flatly evacuation and organized transportation of values of the Hermitage, unprecedented on complexity, to Sverdlovsk.
In difficult military years Iosif Abgarovich decided that time to create Academy of Sciences of Armenia came, and for realization of this idea in 1943 left to Yerevan. The Academy of Sciences of Armenia was organized, the first academicians are elected, the first president - Iosif Orbeli is elected, earned the first academic institutes, the perspective directions of researches were claimed. Iosif Abgarovich became the director of Institute of history AN. The leading scientists began to move to Armenia - Armenians, intensively developed mathematics, chemistry, physics, biology, astrophysics, computer facilities … As a result, rapid growth of the chemical and electrotechnical industry, quantum electronics etc. began Armenia became leading, scientifically and technically developed republic which is turning out products based on results of researches of the Armenian scientists.
Iosif Abgarovich witnessed on Nyyurnbergsky process. He spoke about barbarous destructions of monuments of culture and art in Leningrad, his ardent speech turned into charge.
In the middle of Stalin repressions And. Orbeli received the indication of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs to immediately submit the list of the staff of the Hermitage who had a noble origin. Orbeli executed the order. The first in the list his name was. More Hermitage did not disturb.
Other of brothers, Leon Orbeli , arrived in Leningrad voyenno - medical academy. In student`s years he actively worked in laboratory of the academician I. P. Pavlov, in 26 years defended the doctoral dissertation. After three years of training in the leading laboratories of England, Germany, Italy he received outstanding scientific results in the field of physiology, headed natural-science office of Institute of P.F. Lesgaft, was the director of Institute of evolutionary physiology and pathology of higher nervous activity of I. P. Pavlov, Voyenno - medical academy headed more than 10 years.
In 1935 L. Orbeli was elected the academician and at the same time the member of presidium of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. After I. P`s death. Pavlova Orbeli headed Physiological institute of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and in 1946 became vice-the president of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Scientifically - organizational activity of Orbeli was directly connected with outstanding scientists of the country - academicians A. P. Karpinsky, V. L. Komarov, S. I. Vavilov. Leon Orbeli was one of founders and the academician of AN of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1944 to it the rank the general - the colonel of a health service was given, he became the academician of again formed Academy of medical sciences of the USSR, was awarded by a gold medal of I. I. Mechnikov.
Since 1950 within 7 years Leon Orbeli held positions of the chief Voyenno - medical academy, was the head of office of biological sciences of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the winner of an award of I. P. Pavlov and the State award, the Hero of Socialist Work, the honourable doctor and the academician of a number of foreign academies.
The closest pupil of the Nobel Prize laureate Ivan Pavlov, L. A. Orbeli by right is considered not only the founder of new science - evolutionary physiology, but also the founder of big scientific physiological school. Orbeli`s ideas are nowadays developed by his pupils and followers at the St. Petersburg institute of evolutionary physiology and biochemistry of I. M. Sechenov of the Russian Academy of Sciences and at the Institute of physiology bearing his name in Yerevan.
The huge role was played by Leon Orbeli in development of physiological science in Armenia. Its school of sciences there passed tens of physiologists - Armenians. Under its management the Institute of physiology of AN of Armenia where studying of processes of a brain became the main direction of researches was founded.
The senior from brothers, Ruben Orbeli , arrived on law department of the St. Petersburg university upon termination of which it was left for preparation for teaching activity at department of civil law. Then it was sent to Germany on improvement. In 1906. Orbeli became the master of the rights of Sankt - the St. Petersburg university and the doctor of the rights of Yensky university. In 1918 Ruben Orbeli became one of organizers, and after and as the teacher of the State university in Tambov where gave lectures on law, philosophy, ethics, then worked at institutes of Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Especially Ruben Orbeli was carried away by history of diving business. Having studied Leonardo da Vinci`s manuscripts, he established sources of origin of technology of diving business. In 1934 according to the recommendation of the academician A. N. Krylov he was invited to work in Expedition of underwater works of special function where held positions of the scientific consultant, the member scientifically - technical council and the historiographer. From this point R. Orbeli was engaged in studying of underwater archaeological monuments, organized a number of hydroarchaeological expeditions to the Black Sea and other water basins, developed a technique of protection against destruction of the archaeological exhibits lifted from water on a surface. He is considered the founder of underwater archeology in the USSR. At the end of 1942 Mr. Rubena Orbeli in a serious condition took out from besieged Leningrad to Moscow where it died in 1943
In St. Petersburg - the city with which activity of brothers of Orbeli is connected, events in memory of merits of outstanding scientists and organizers of science are traditionally held. Some of these actions took place also this year.
In July in St. Petersburg at the initiative of the staff of Institute of evolutionary physiology and biochemistry of I. M. Sechenov - to one of founders of this institute - the monument was established to the academician Leon Orbeli.
On November 20 in the yard of department of history of Sankt - the St. Petersburg university opening of a monument to the academician Iosif Orbeli which in 1911 graduated from this faculty took place, then was his professor. The prime minister - the minister of Armenia Tigran Sargsyan took part in the opening ceremony of a monument. Earlier in June, 2010 in the presence of presidents of Russia and Armenia the pedestal of a bust of Iosif Orbeli was open.
Georgy Galechyan, “Voice of Armenia“ of
on February 23, 2011.