Why to Japanese of a netsuke? Inro and a netsuke - a couple of unseparable
you Remember the excellent Soviet movie about the honest teenager Krosh? All it is good, except one - suggests an idea that tiny carved figurines - of a netsuke Japanese thought up for contemplation. And also for the embodiment of difficult philosophical concepts and a collecting. Truly mysterious people!
Meanwhile Japanese not only distinguished artists, but also big pragmatists. In traditional Japanese life, the subject world, a suit both of these properties of national character merged indissolubly. The “ideology“ of this life, its material environment tracing the roots back deeply to Buddhist attitude dictated - nothing superfluous, nothing casual. To the European measures, Japanese lived modestly. Only a necessary minimum of things - but what! It is no wonder that any “the household trifle“ can become a subject of museum storage and a collecting. Also the couple, unseparable in the past, - inro is among such trifles and of a netsuke .
Inro - it the tiny product is decorative - applied art, existing only in Japan in 17 - 19 centuries, part of a secular suit of men and women. Allows to judge the name appointment: in - “press“, ro - “box“, i.e. “a box for the seals“. Really, at the end of 16 century when inro appeared and became current, they were used for carrying the seals and ink. Therefore early inro consist of one office (sometimes with two parts, for red and black ink). But gradually they turned into some kind of figurative first-aid kit as allowed to store, without mixing, several medicinal substances at once.
Boxes in the form of slightly convex rectangle with smoothed things over prevailed, they can be roundish in section and flat. Also figurative - in the form of a fan, a turtle etc. became. Masters of a tea ceremony preferred inro in the form of a round tea-caddy. Men suspended them to a belt, and women carried behind a sleeve. Differed in the big size in inro actors and fighters, small intended for a children`s festive suit, tiny served as toys. Buddhist monks did not carry them at all.
This tiny (apprx. 8,5õ5õ2,5 cm) the many-tier casket is made of several (most often 3 - 5) the offices located one over another. Each following closes previous, and offices are adjusted so carefully that borders in closed form between them are almost not distinguishable. Top it is closed by the cover having internal space or flat. On each side inro pass tubules through which the silk cord is passed through through all its elements. The knot under a product bottom allows to regulate length of a cord.
Well, and of a netsuke is actually a counterbalance on other end of a cord. The Japanese suit had no pockets, the cord inro was thrown through a belt, and some charm was necessary - to hook for a belt and to counterbalance weight of a subject which wanted to be had at itself, but not in hands. Not only the figurative first-aid kit, but also, for example, a purse, a tobacco pouch could be such subject.
But we will return to inro . On a cord between a box and of a netsuke the large bead - odzime slid (from about - “cord“ and to a simer - “to squeeze, tighten“). It is clear, that purpose of a bead - to pull together a cord over a cover inro and to fix it in a closed position. For odzime often used the coral which is allegedly breaking in the presence of poison. Quite often the ensemble inro , odzime and of a netsuke was made by as uniform, but anyway its elements had to be combined in forms, material and a plot.
The absolute majority inro is made of a varnish on a wooden basis as this material is strong, air - and is waterproof, is perfectly polished. The basis was done of a cypress, dried up till 3 years and covered with varnish coats number to 30. The artist decorated a ready basis with decorative varnish coats, using four main technicians: admixture of gold powder, addition of dyes, incrustation (from metal, nacre, etc.) and carving. The decor “braided“ forward and back surfaces, masking gaps between offices. For this purpose they were connected wax which then was kindled, and the varnish on lines of sockets was cut.
Early inro were made out in the Chinese style by a red or black varnish. Dragons, the stylized vegetable motives, court scenes and blagopozhelatelny hieroglyphs were represented on them. At the beginning of 17 century under the influence of styles of great national artists - Koetsu and Corin`s dekorativist in a decor inro there were laconic, freely flowing on a surface motives - plants, fantastic and real animals, objects (fans, vehicles, etc.) . In 19 century the gold background became standard, and to the place of color varnishes incrustation came. Some inro this time are executed entirely from a tree, a bone or metal; the sharkskin, cherry bark, fragile glass and porcelain, a porous wood mushroom meet.
Since the end of 19 century from - for distribution of the European suit inro gradually went out of use. Now they decorate art collections. Unfortunately, most often separately from the indispensable satellites - of a netsuke and odzime . The ensemble which remained up to now meets infrequently. There passed not one century since these beautiful and convenient bagatelles together served the especially utilitarian purpose. Already owners could lose beads and brelka and to replace them with others - not to vanish the necessary thing!
The European and American collectors too far thought up not at once to collect the whole sets. Tiny small weights - figurines among which there are many original masterpieces attracted keen, but often ignorant buyers of east wonders. Here and the Japanese carvers showed a pragmatism, did not miss an attractive market opportunity. Many of a netsuke was made especially for sale to the European collectors. And time such products had no practical function, here any means were used to please “gaydzinsky“ tastes, - both irregular shape, and abundance of a carving.
From hands of the creative intellectuals they removed to museum show-windows, and now excite our imagination. There, on show-windows, they are self-sufficient owing to the art perfection. Everyone - as if a milestone on the mysterious way deep into times, an almost inaudible smile of the artist. And nobody will remember the anonymous wealthy citizen who it is simple - naprosto wanted to lose the drugs!