The cupid and the captain Nevelskoy (Cupid - the greatest river of the world!.)
Cupid - the greatest river of the world!.
Cupid and captain Nevelskoy
“… It is interesting that on Sakhalin give names to settlements in honor of the Siberian governors, inspectors of prisons … but are absolutely forgotten about researchers as Nevelskoy, the seaman Korsakov, Boshnyak … memory of which, I believe, A. P. Chekhov deserves the bigger respect …“
. “Island of Sakhalin“
Chekhov wrote this book after a trip in 1890 to Sakhalin. Spontaneous it to call difficult: Anton Pavlovich thoroughly prepared for travel, studying works of researchers, going deep into edge history - “the Russian Amazonia“ which opened for Russia the widest ocean window to both America, to Asia, Australia …
Is possible, historical value of Cupid - the greatest river of the world (at least, the greatest for many Russians) - descendants will estimate more stoutly over time. As only years and centuries later estimated the window “opened“ by Peter the Great at Europe on close, but such necessary Baltic.
By the way, not for nothing we compared mighty Amur to far mysterious Amazon. Climate in these parts almost subtropical, and the nature of edge Far East represents an amazing magic alloy of tropical and taiga flora (about fauna I am already silent - one Amur leopard of what costs!) … the Chinese and Japanese subtropical vegetation, a bamboo, magnolias, an aktinidiya (almost “kiwi“, the southern delicacy which became habitual), other tropical lianas adjoin to birches here!.
And the sizes of the great rivers, in general, are comparable: if Amazon “gathers“ in length of five and a half thousand kilometers (it with Maranyon and if to consider with inflow of Ucayali, then all 6480 km!) near it Cupid does not seem it “the smaller brother“, having in length of 4350 km.
For comparison: great Ganges is one and a half times shorter (2700 km) than our Cupid. However, three more Asian rivers are slightly larger - more precisely, more long - Huang He, Yangtze and Mekong - but all European “giants“ fall short neither of them, nor of Cupid: wide free Volga - 3690 km in length, the poetical aristocrat Danube - 2850 km, the severe Urals 2530 km long, and silent Dnieper under any weather conditions - 2280 km. About Rhine (1330), Elba (1165) and the Thames (only 338 km) it is possible in this context and not to mention.
To put it briefly, ANY of the European rivers is incomparable to Cupid!
Here it - that, Cupid, for them really “elder brother“!
That is already final to finish conversation on the river sizes on different continents, it is possible to mention between lines that only two African rivers can stand in a row with Cupid (of course, legendary Nile moreover Congo), and North American Missouri.
From geography again to history.
Nikolay Nikolaevich Muravyyov (1809 - 1881) who became later Muravyyov - Amur, since 1847 - go for 1861 - y year was the general - the governor of Eastern Siberia, in every possible way promoting studying of its immense open spaces, and to some extent patronized the banished Decembrists that, however, did not prevent it (not to fall under suspicion of sympathy for enemies of tsarism) to apply to them very severe administrative measures sometimes at all.
Muravyyov gave full support to Gennady Ivanovich Nevelsky (1813 - 1876) in his patriotic aspiration to attach to Russia since ancient times (nearly since the time of Ivan the Terrible) the lands once occupied already by Cossacks - but then as if become disputable, forgotten by the power of the next monarch. However subsequently Muravyyov managed - “to remove“ Nevelskoy and to attribute himself all merits in opening, the description, at last, in difficult, and sometimes and dangerous (first of all from - behind a constant of threat of attacks of Manchurians) development of Priamursky lands - for what the Siberian governor, actually, and received a title of count with addition to a surname of the Amur prefix.
Brilliantly represented in the books this major period of development of Russia the remarkable Russian writer Nikolay Pavlovich Zadornov - “Strange lands“, “The first opening“, “Captain Nevelskoy“, “War across the ocean“, “Tsunami“, “Simoda“... (Both in literature, and in historical science, and in patriotic education of youth) it is difficult to overestimate value of all listed novels. But it would be desirable to add a sketch with a fragment from the big novel “Captain Nevelskoy“ as more suitable thematically:
“… It was time when the tsar grew old and his constant ministers grew old. The government consisted of already decrepit and cruel, but trying to look younger people. These aged men were a peculiar symbol weakening, but the cruel Nikolaev mode. They did not want to leave political life, as if without wishing to believe that they are old men. They suppressed and destroyed all young in all time of life.
But Muravyyov was not frightened. He knew these people and though used their protection, knew also that there are other people who can become on their place. For years of life in Siberia he got used to independence. He felt the force, ability to work and kept as equal with equal here.
- the Expedition sent to Amur, - he said on committee, - proved to us that there is nobody, except Gilyaks! * The officer sent by me based there, according to the highest command, a post in the gulf of Happiness. Circumstances were that that it entered the river and there put a post which we can remove or leave. But he had to act this way as the English opisny vessels approached the mouth … From the same reasons it left announcements to foreigners about accessory of the region of Russia! There passed half a year. If the earth was non-russian there, so there would be protests. But they are absent. The captain brought with himself on the vessel of Gilyaks who declared in Ayan that they are independent, never rendered tribute to Manchurians. They wish that Russians lived at them. Their request is written down in the presence of the governor of the Kamchatka region counter - the admiral Zavoyko, and its authenticity is confirmed by the preosvyashchenny Innokenti who was also present at this time at Ayan **, our famous missionary who awarded gilyatsky deputation with attention and talked to them. Questions of its preosvyashchenstvo, as well as answers of Gilyaks, I had honor to present to committee with other documents. Perfect authenticity of all that is presented to us about the researches in the earth of Gilyaks by the captain of the first rank Nevelskoy appears from them. Here actions of the captain which he sought to keep that country for Russia. These documents cannot but disseminate the mistrust rendered to it and its opening.
- These witnesses from Gilyaks to whom you refer, - corpulent Senyavin told, throwing up dense black eyebrows, - are also not credible, as well as Nevelskoy.
- All this business of your hands! - with irritation the Minister of Finance Vronchenko started talking. - Yes as it is the officer subordinated to you dared to leave such announcement self-willedally! You also have to be responsible for its actions.
- its actions agree with my intentions! - quietly Muravyyov answered. He declared that Nevelskoy made all actions from his permission. He took the risk, an instinct guessing that it is the most right course.
- you want to erect a monument to! - roughly the Minister of War count Chernyshyov shouted to Muravyyov.
Here Muravyyov flashed …
- And this ofitserik, the Lord … - Vronchenko started talking.
- to Degrade! - pursing lips, Berg uttered, looking afar black prickly eyes in which there was an intoxication own greatness.
- to Degrade! To degrade! - voices were distributed.
- Under a red cap! - For such offenses it is not enough to
to degrade, - Senyavin started talking.
- Races - to shoot! - sharply Chernyshyov … rapped out“
concerning Sakhalin mentioned in an epigraph. Actually, and in the first half of the nineteenth century it was not clear, whether the island it, or the peninsula (the nearest neighbors are Japanese - too its sense did not investigate). Many - room scientists and travelers despising offices - claimed that Sakhalin - the peninsula. So the French seafarer Jean-Francois Laperouz thought, also the great Russian seafarer, the admiral and the round-the-world traveler Ivan Fyodorovich Krusenstern so believed.
I only Gennady Nevelskoy furiously claimed that Sakhalin is the island, than caused irritation both “powers that be“, and numerous appeasable colleagues.
Is clear that Nevelskoy had predecessors. The same Erofey Pavlovich Habarov (Svyatitsky), the Russian zemleprokhodets and the industrialist - in 1651 he founded the city of Albazin on Amur, and in centuries the station of the Amur railroad (and is called, “Erofey Pavlovich“) and the city of Khabarovsk are called by his name.
Was still the Siberian Cossack Onufry Stepanov. Having remained after Habarov`s departure “the mandative person of the Amur River - the Novaya Daursky Zemlya“, Stepanov skillfully organized defense of the Russian settlements against Manchurian troops. He built the town near the mouth of the river of Kumara (nowadays - Kumar`s city at rossiysko - the Chinese border), died in fight with Manchurians later.
Indirectly was related to Nevelskoy`s purpose - “increment“ of Russia by the Amur region - and the Decembrist, he is a seafarer Dmitry Irinarkhovich Zavalishin who left penal servitude in Chita and Petrovsky plant, later on the settlement in Chita. He refused to use amnesty (1856) and remained - to study in Chita Buryatia, Transbaikalia, that is edge, “smoothly passing“ into the present Amur region.
Is remarkable and it is even symbolical that in 1863 - m for accusatory articles against local administration, homebrew bureaucrats, it was sent … from Siberia to Moscow!!!
The Russian spiritual mission in Beijing had certain relation to “The Amur question“ - to the second half of the nineteenth century it was the sole diplomatic and trade mission in China. It was founded at the beginning of the eighteenth century for departure of church service among the Russian settlers - at first it were prisoners of war and their families which got to China after capture of the Manchurian - the Chinese troops of the city of Albazin (in 1687) on Amur.
In the book A. P. Chekhov from which fragment is taken out in an epigraph to this sketch, Nikolay Konstantinovich Boshnyak - the naval officer, the participant of the Amur expedition of Nevelskoy, the researcher of lower reaches of Amur River, Strait of Tartary and Sakhalin is mentioned.
In 1855 - 1856 on “Olivuts“ corvette Boshnyak returned to St. Petersburg. Soon there were its articles “Occupation of Part of the Island of Sakhalin“ and “Expedition in the Priamursky Region“. here we passed
With Boshnyak from Nevelskoy`s predecessors to his colleagues, associates. And to a descent, finishing a sketch, we will remember people who are difficult for carrying to colleagues of the captain Nevelsky - in particular, to more senior (both on a rank, and on age, situation in society) to the admiral, the statesman, the researcher of the Sea of Japan Evfimy Vasilyevich Putyatin. The matter is that also he heading in 1852 - 1855 diplomatic mission to Japan by a frigate “Pallada“ and many officers «of the Pallada“ … as if is softer to tell … “slightly disliked“ Nevelskoy and, frankly speaking, did not understand his many aspirations. So, one of officers voiced the thought soaring in air that it is desirable to occupy good Japanese port - a pier, then we, the Russian fleet, ourselves here, in the east, in the ocean we will better feel. Nevelskoy categorically did not agree with “the stranger`s prikhvatyvaniye“ as the magic country stood deserted and undeveloped. And nonfreezing harbors which Russia on the Pacific Ocean so needed just and were in the mouth of Amur and to the south - where the handsome - Vladivostok port was now stretched.
Nevertheless Putyatin`s expedition, contrary to Japan played at coast of the tragedy - to an earthquake and a terrible tsunami that destroyed coastal settlements and ruined the ship of the admiral Putyatin (approximately in these parts centuries later repeated, but in other manifestations, new accident - the recent tsunami which led to “the second Chernobyl“ on the NPP at the Japanese town of Fukushima) - coped with the mission. And even, moreover, the Russian seamen, despite of the danger threatening with him, saved the Japanese fishermen from storming waves, then helped to build up to the few escaped inhabitants, to begin to build on the place of ruins the new city - and later, constructing modern shipyard and on shipyard the new ship, helped Japan to master modern shipbuilding - that, in turn, gave an impetus to economic development of this east country.
I came an opportunity here to send dear reader to novels Nikolay Pavlovich Zadornov of “Tsunami“ and “Simoda“. It, without exaggeration, the most fascinating reading immersing in the little-known, almost forgotten pages of our great history - who is already aware of business, that (I hope) will confirm!
* Gilyaks (an accent on a final syllable) - so called Nivkhs earlier. Nivkhs live in territories in lower reaches of Amur River (Khabarovsk Krai) and on Sakhalin; total number is about five thousand people. Gilyatsky (Nivkh) language, like language of Ainu, is genetically isolated and conditionally relates to so-called paleoaziatsky languages.
** is about the archbishop Innokenti in the previous sketch on this website.