Bread - to all the head? Chunk the fifth. Barley and “Pearl“ sandwich!
the Famous scientist and the traveler N. Przhevalsky, having visited far open spaces of the mysterious Himalayas, was surprised, having seen as they highly here sow corn - fields turned yellow even at the height of five thousand meters above sea level!. Here the barley kingdom was stretched!
Locals ate neither wheat, nor rye, but barley bread. Of course, it was rough, quickly crumbled. Drying, quickly hardened. But in it sweet was felt. And the most important - at people just was not other exit: at such transcendental heights neither rye, nor wheat grow ripe.
Barley cultural , ordinary (Hordeum vulgare L.), family Cereals (Poaceae). Actually in food several types of barley, including barley double-row are used (Hordeum distichum L.) which differs from barley ordinary in the fact that it has only one cone from three (average) of plodushchiya; other two, sitting on short legs, fruitless. At barley ordinary all three cones on a ledge of a flower axis plodushchy.
Both plants are one-year.
Within these two types there is a set of versions - at one awn smooth, at others rough, at the third (so-called furkatny) instead of awns special outgrowths develop; there is even a bezosty version (dundar). At the majority of forms and kinds of barley the zernovka grows together with flower scales (filmy barley), but also golozerny forms are known. Differences are shown and in coloring of zernovka - they are yellow, black, violet.
Among kinds of ordinary barley forms with densely constructed ear “giving“ a hexagon (the correct six-sided barley) in cross section and with more friable ears in which lateral cones are slightly rejected aside come across and in cross section make impression of a quadrangle (so-called tetrahedral or, more precisely, incorrectly six-row). Summer and winter forms of barley are known.
Today major importance of barley - fodder, for feeding by a farm animal. But nevertheless also food value, barley - valuable krupyany culture remains. In this sense golozyorny barley is especially valuable - from them receives pearl-barley and barley grits. From barley receive also the flour at baking of bread added to wheat or barley bread is baked only of barley flour.
On the maintenance of a protein in grains considerable fluctuations (from 7 to 20,4%) depending on high-quality features are observed and it is soil - climatic conditions. These fluctuations are subordinated to the interesting regularity which is shown and at other cultural cereals (wheat, for example): the maintenance of proteins increases in the conditions of more continental, droughty climate and solonetzic soils.
Thus, the most valuable the barley which is grown up in the southern areas (mainly tetrahedral forms) is. Besides, barley forms a basis for receiving malt and production of beer - usually in this quality grades of double-row barley (so-called brewing barley) with the lowered maintenance of a protein and with the increased content of starch are used. These grades grow up in the conditions of more humid cool climate.
By the way, barley possesses high cold constancy - this culture can be grown up even behind the Polar circle and is high in mountains (to 4 km above sea level). Cold constancy is successfully combined with other important quality - precocity. At the same time barley is also drought-resistant, can yield rather big crops not only in steppes, but also in semi-deserts! The similar combination of qualities does barley to one of the most unique cultural plants - that is to some extent connected with long history of cultivation and selection of barley. In the second half of the last century big crops - about hundred million tons of barley grain a year were around the world reaped!
From fried barley grains cook various drinks (a coffee substitute); often the crushed dried-up chicory roots are a part of similar drinks, natural coffee sometimes increases.
Like wheat, the culture of barley is considered one of the most ancient (and it is possible, and the most ancient). It is confirmed by numerous archaeological data - and not only archaeological.
For hundreds of years B.C. barley was mentioned in Homer`s “Odyssey“. Barley was mentioned also by other great Greeks - writers Pavzany and Teofrast. Teofrast Erezsky even definitely points to double-row barley - whereas in the pile constructions of Switzerland relating to the Neolithic grains of six-row barley were found more often. The same barley - six-row - was found in the most ancient Egyptian tombs (Dekandol believed that six-row barley or occurred from wild double-row or itself was once wild plant, but then in the nature absolutely died out, having remained - and having developed in a set of grades - only in culture).
Barley was found in the most ancient monuments to Babylonia (near Nippur) and in ancient summeriysky constructions (near Baghdad). Images of grains and barley ear were seen on the hettsky monuments in Asia Minor relating to the period of the third and even the fourth millennium till Christmas.
N. I. Vavilov in the book “Centers of an Origin of Cultural Plants“ pays attention to wild barley. In total sort Hordeum contains 29 types, one-year and perennial plants extended on all continents except Australia. Vavilov assumed that played a big role in an origin of cultural forms of barley wild-growing Hordeum spontaneum - but not only one this look. By the way, own researches of Vavilov find not one, but two centers of a shaping.
One such center appeared in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) especially rich with awned forms of filmy barley. For this region North - east Africa (with the adjoining territories) 18 kinds of barley - and it apart from cultivars are peculiar. In the same place there were also all European versions. Many of them differ fluffy cheshuyam of cones and the stalks which are brightly painted antotsiany. On the contrary, Iran, India, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan differ in small number of versions (in Afghanistan their less than half-dozen).
The second center where on all signs there was a vigorous formation of versions and races of barley, appeared in East Asia, in China and East Himalayas. And though here only nine versions, but all with very sharp differences - with short awns, naked grains, with tryokhrogy bladed appendages were found. Dwarfish races, races broad-leaved etc. came across to
If after Vavilov to recognize for primary center of culture of barley of Hugo - the western Asia, then both Chinese and Abyssinian (Ethiopian) groups of barley should be considered brought from the outside when moving the most ancient agricultural tribes or in the course of implementation of commercial relations between them.
Finishing “a pearl-barley sketch“, there is a wish to stop on some practical moments.
Yachnevy and pearl-barley porridge, of course, is rough and shown not at all diseases zheludochno - an intestinal path, but nevertheless it should be eaten from time to time - both for improvement of a vermicular movement of intestines, and for improvement of a metabolism in an organism.
Preparing pearl barley, it is possible to fill in it for some time with water, and having put on fire, at the last stages of cooking to add a little sunflower oil that grain boiled soft better.
Pearl sandwich is constructed elementary simply: on a chunk of black rye bread though “Borodino“ though “Ukrainian“, generously we stack a spoon hot pearl-barley porridge (not necessarily a gruel - also beautiful “pearls“ are good!) and from above, “for a hokhma“ and for appearance, one and only (but surely large!:) a red berry, and … The nourishing breakfast is guaranteed to us!
You can treat “Pearl“ and guests, but there is a risk that the sense of humour of the people invited to a modest celebration to your house will be, say, slightly not corresponding to your sense of humour - and then offense for the rest of life, and a leg on a visit! However, it is quite good check “on durability“. And at the same time a method to take away from the hospitable house of guests well very much persuasive (and such come across in our cheerful life).