Bread - to all the head? Chunk the fourth. Oats: history and...
“And the field gray cold oats …“ Even in verses and songs can meet by
good kind words about this plant. Not without reason the most useful porridge is called Herculean - as if the powerful strength of the Ancient Greek hero is given by it! By the way, it is interesting - whether Hercules actually ate porridge? Before eyes the picture appears - the bearded butler approaches the hero sitting at a table and speaks: “Porridge, sir!.“
Even if to Hercules also did not happen to regale on “Herculean porridge“ - it does not matter. We easily can make up for lost time ancient Greeks.
Sowing campaign oats (Avena sativa L.) family Cereals (Poaceae) - a grassy odnoletnik 60 - 100 cm high, with the naked leaves possessing bluish outflow in green coloring. Blossoms on an extent of all summer. All flowers (they are two or three) in the large cone squeezed from sides are not jointed with an axis and when maturing are not showered. However, the awn is present only on cheshuyakh the lower flowers; also absolutely bezosty forms meet. Koloskovye of scales at the edges webby and without Kiel. In a flower (small and ordinary-looking, because anemogamous) three stamens. The lower flower scales lantsetny, on a top two-gear, about 20 mm long. The quantity of flowers with awns can vary depending on an agrotechnology and degree of humidity. Cones are collected in sprawling, to 25 cm, a whisk. A fruit - the zernovka covered on all the surface with the soft pressed hairs.
Culture of oats so ancient that unambiguously it is unambiguously very difficult to answer a question of its homeland. For example, the scientist - the biologist Dekandol considered that oats were not known to either ancient Egyptians, or ancient Jews. But in the remains of lake constructions of Switzerland - the truth, - archeologists oats were found only in late, their bronze period. In the ancient time oats were known also in the northern regions of Greece, and in the north of Italy. Pliny Sr. reported that ancient Germans cultivated oats and cooked from it porridge. Galen mentioned that oats sowed in India. Dioskorid not only mentioned him, but also oats in the medical practice - oat slime against cough, oats grain applied to various compresses, and gruel from grain from disorder of intestines. So both ancient Greeks, and ancient Romans, as they say, were aware of business.
Even the philological comparative analysis allows to recognize and, moreover, to approve - very early, old, culture of oats. At ancient Celts (an origin modern the Georgian, most likely, like Irish, and also Basques in Spain, Celtic), at Slavs and in the German tribes of angl and saxophones this plant had similar names: Irish “crust“ and Georgian “caret“, Basque “olba“ and “oloa“, Slavic to “notice“ or “oves“, English oats.
The same Dekandol proved that as oats run wild easier than other cereals (so sometimes it seems wild-growing though the real wild oats of a sowing campaign are not known), and especially in Austria, and also in territories to the East from it, as the most probable center of its origin it is necessary to consider area of a temperate climate of Eastern Europe.
It is not simple to guess the homeland of oat culture and the ancestor of cultural oats at all. Oats grow up in the northern countries, but also in the southern direction this culture promoted too. There are oats and in Argentina, the country almost subtropical, and in the USA, Hungary, and in Korea and Turkmenistan it is cultivated in mountains at such height where other cultural cereals already badly grow ripe.
Some scientists incline to opinion that oats it is necessary to consider as a plant of the western Asia. G. Tanfilyev considered that “ was for the first time taken in culture probably where ovsyug (a footnote in the bottom of the page, an edition-* a weed, closely related to oats a look) it is especially plentiful, namely-in steppes southern or Hugo-east Russia “ oats. It should be noted that many Western European biologists share the opinion close to Tanfilyev`s opinion, on the European origin of cultural oats.
The last word in this question belongs, seemingly, to N. I. Vavilov who in the book “Centers of an Origin of Cultural Plants“ it is rather accurate “classified everything“: “ the European oats represent themselves group of very various races differing on coloring flower cheshuy, a grain form, a form of leaves … to the relation to parasitic fungi now; many of these races are peculiar only to northern and Central Europe. However along with the European races we have also groups of the Mediterranean races which are sharply isolated from the European … In North Africa the big group of the cultural oats which are characterized generally by immunity to the European forms of a golovna and a rust * / a footnote in the bottom of the page - * fungal diseases of plants/. This group adjoins, apparently, wild types … growing in North Africa … Both the North African, and western oats are not crossed to forms of ordinary Avena sativa oats or give at the same time big percent of infertility “.
Vavilov also pointed to an originality of special group of the Chinese oats, namely oats with naked large grains - Avena nuda L. that speaks about existence special Chinese or Chinese - the Mongolian center of emergence of oat cultures.
Genesis of cultural oats, Vavilov considered, it is connected with wild and weed types of Avena fatua L., A. Ludoviciana Dur., A. sterilis L., the first two stand A. barbata Pott - and most closer to cultural oats, the prolific hybrids giving with it, and the first of them is widespread on a huge extent from northern Europe to Hindu Kush.
Of course, it would be extremely wrong to connect history of formation of cultural oats only with Europe. By the way, Ethiopia possesses absolutely original group of oats - they very strongly differ both from Asian, and from the European.
On the basis of all these facts it is necessary to recognize that cultural oats have no uniform geographical center - their origin as it is accepted to speak, polifiletichno. Vavilov defined five centers of an origin of cultural oats: The Mediterranean, Ethiopia, northern and North - Western Europe, extensive open spaces of Asia from Transcaucasia to China and, at last, China. However, for group of grades of oats of sowing (Avena sativa) Vavilov defined the fourth, zakavkazsko - Chinese, the center.
Finishing “historical search“, it is necessary to mention that the origin of oats would remain and today not clear if in 1916 during travel across Iran N. I. Vavilov did not come across fields of a polba (Triticum dicoccum) about Hamadan. These crops were strongly littered with ordinary oats, Avena sativa, do not cultivate it neither in Iran, nor in the adjacent countries at all, and it is possible to find it only among a polba. At the same time the oats littering a polba belong to several independent races entering the specific cycle Avena sativa and out of polbyany crops anywhere not repeating.
Researches of polbyany fields on the Pyrenees at Basques and in Bulgaria, in the Volga region and Prikamye, in Transcaucasia and Asia Minor, in the Crimea and, at last, in Ethiopia - the word, everywhere, where the polba got divorced - convincingly showed that oats are its indispensable satellite, coming to light at the same time in original races which Vavilov counted two tens.