Rus Articles Journal

Bread - to all the head? Chunk of the second. Rye

“Cornflowers in rye“ - words from songs, fairy tales. Even pictures are with such name. Rye for centuries fed our people. Fragrant, fragrant black bread brought a saying to life: “The need will force kalatches is“. It about those poor people - peasants that ran from landowners - sirs to the southern steppes - to Don, Kuban, Slobozhanshchina … Instead of habitual black bread it was necessary to eat wheaten kalatches. And now the people knowing appreciate proteins of rye bread above, than wheat.

Rye sowing (Secale cereale L.) family Cereals (Poaceae) - a grassy odnoletnik from 60 cm up to two meters high. Leaves 5 - 10 mm wide, naked, it is bluish - green. Koloskovy scales - without awn or with an awn, much shorter, than scales. In a long rough awn (length of 2 - 5 cm) the lower flower scales are narrowed. Blossoming - in June. A fruit - a zernovka. An inflorescence - an ear, 5 - 15 cm long, with not fragile axis.

Dekandol claimed that rye was not known to ancient Greeks and Romans. Most likely, really Alexander of Macedon`s contemporaries did not know this plant, but Pliny already spoke about it, calling it Secale (he claimed that rye is the main grain plant of Celts, but bread from it, according to Pliniya, can serve only for a hunger satisfying), and Galen pointed to cultivation of such plant in Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly - therefore, rye as a cultural plant became known at the beginning of our era, slightly less than two thousand years ago.

Philological researches on an equal basis with archaeological demonstrate that rye was cultivated during this period among Slavic, German and Celtic tribes. The English name “Rye“, German “Roggen“ and Russian “rye“ - obviously one root. Latin “Secale“ is quite conformable with Breton “Segal“ and Basque “Cekela“ or “Zekhalea“, Ossetian “ñûë“ and Georgian “twisted“.

In the book of the academician N. I. Vavilov “The centers of an origin of cultural plants“ interesting supervision is given: at monotony of culture of this plant in Europe and Siberia an outstanding variety of grades of this cereal was found where it, one may say, nobody waited - where rye was not cultivated or grown up as insignificant culture at all. It is Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Asia Minor, part of Uzbekistan. In all these countries rye - just a weed among wheat or barley fields! And one more supervision about cultivation of cereals: in process of ascension to mountains rye directly - forces out wheat. Besides, than higher to mountains, that this process is more noticeable.

In other words, rye is stronger than wheat in severe conditions of mountain climate with colder and short summer, on rough soils. And time it is stronger, also the fact that its advance to the North goes more intensively, than at wheat is clear.

Wheat mix with rye - so-called “ñóðæèê“, or “surzha“ - usual near the Caucasus, became more - less usual in the south of Ukraine and Russia, having presented the name to the southern dialect typical for Cossacks of Kuban, the Quiet Don, vicinities of Kharkiv and Poltava in recent times.

So, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the culture of the cereal having the name rye sowing is rather young in comparison with culture of wheat, barley, millet and others. About it writers of a pre-Christian era have no data, rye grains in the Egyptian pyramids, pile constructions or other monuments to antiquity did not remain. Rye, being only a weed plant, accompanied winter wheat in the south, being gradually allocated in independent culture in process of agriculture advance (more precisely, in process of wheat advance) for the North where showed big fitness, resistance to severe climatic conditions and gradually forced out wheat, having objectively created a basis of northern grain agriculture.

Today rye is grown up in North America, Siberia, in Europe - rather big acreage under rye were in Poland and Hungary, Germany, the Czech Republic.

The black bread baked of rye flour possesses high tastes, contains full-fledged proteins and vitamins - And, In, E. Rozh - a source of iron and starch. And at thin grind and cleaning from flour passes into bran practically all iron yes of substance, strengthening a vermicular movement of intestines and promoting removal of slags. So, bran is even more useful, than rye bread from fine flour. The most valuable in comparison with such bread is bread from torment of rough grind, or - just from fresh flour. For this purpose it is possible to use the spare coffee grinder (if it is not a pity) in house conditions or it is better a small mukomolka to have an opportunity, for example, to bake surprisingly tasty small loafs from rye flour. By the way, a crisp of black bread - the most important source of B1 vitamin.

The British dietitians consider that coronary heart disease occurs at the people who are regularly eating rye bread much less often - in it is much bigger iron, potassium and magnesium, than in white, wheat, bread. Let`s add this information other - it is also useful to eat bread from rye bran from time to time.

Would be a mistake, having been fond of advantage of rye bread, to pass completely to it. Nutritionists advise to be limited to two slices at dinner - everything well moderately.

In end of article - quite concrete recommendations: bran for gourmets , or - the recipe from bran for gourmets.

100 - (Tired previously) bran to miss 120 g steamed via the meat grinder with the prunes purified of stones (for this purpose prunes it is necessary to trouble in advance too) - about 200 g, and 100 g of raisin. To eat for three receptions.

This product can be prepared during two - three weeks at treatment - for normalization of work of intestines. During treatment by bran it is desirable to drink more water, to 5 - 6 glasses. It is better to prepare daily fresh product, without preparing “for the future“.

Be continued.