Rus Articles Journal

Bread - to all the head? Chunk the first. Wheat: history and...

In the well-known book of Seton - Thompson of “the Prairie of the Arctic“ are the fragment narrating about wild torments of hunger which was experienced by Indians together with white in that memorable raid. Strangely enough, torment of hunger occurred at “catastrophic“ surplus of meat! And here bread - was not. The melancholy for bread became stronger. Indians called this feeling “flour hunger“. The meat food three times a day caused disgust …

the Monotonous food - meat of an elk and tea - undermined forces. People had a shiver in legs. “The friendly solid staff“ threatened to blow up revolt flash any minute … Here what “flour hunger“ can create!

And now our history - as opposed to American, it with about a lshy bias in agriculture.

… Tell that davny - long ago hostesses in Donbass began to notice that bread becomes tasteless. On the best yeast he hardly - hardly rose and grew stout in the furnace as if cow flat cake on a meadow. The bug - a turtle was responsible. Its larva bit through grains and drank contents, dissolving wheaten “interiors“ saliva enzyme. Grain became friable as if empty. The larva turned meanwhile in a bug which flew further.

To two hundred thousand bugs occupied each hectare of wheat fields. Sometimes on square meter it was possible to find two hundred bugs - “invaders“! Started on the book and read that in 1903 the entomologist I. Vasilyev called in allies against “turtle“ a predatory front sight of a telenopus. She laid the eggs in eggs of bugs - and not “turtles“, and young predatory front sights were brought from them soon any more.

To multiply 42 precious front sights - everything that was at the disposal of biologists, many turtles eggs were necessary, but the wrecker already left on wintering in the woods, having hidden in the fallen-down foliage.

Thousands of people left in the woods. They stirred foliage, caught bugs and carried them in laboratory. By next summer the army of telenopus was created! And on the fields “dipterous fighters“ began to destroy harmful larvae.

But front sights could make nothing to adult bugs. And then on fields let out … hens! Hens - hundreds, thousands of hens - roamed about wheat fields, their scarlet combs as if scarlet poppies blossomed among wheat flashed everywhere. They with appetite swallowed “turtles“, having eaten too much so that at the end of the day they were tumbled down down to the ground, to semi-death having frightened poultry-maids.

Result: wheat was rescued. Everything managed safely. Any chicken and any poultry-maid did not suffer.

Wheat summer, or soft, and wheat firm (Triticum aestivum L., Triticum durum Desf.), family Cereals (Poaceae). Both of this look differ from each other a little. Ears of wheat soft - linear, friable, the fruit - a zernovka - is a little squeezed, in a section usually mealy, at the zernovka thresh easily separate from flower films; both winter, and summer forms belong to this look; plants usually from meter up to 120 cm high. At wheat firm an ear dense, harmonous, squeezed from sides, zernovka firm, in a break vitreous; grades of solid wheat - only summer, differ in drought resistance. This wheat is slightly larger - up to 180 cm high.

Except these two types, the most mass (in the middle of the last century under crops of solid and soft wheat more than 200 million hectares of fields were occupied!) in the world grow up some more - for example, club wheat (in Tajikistan and other adjacent countries), kruglozyorny (the North of Pakistan), Persian (Transcaucasia, Dagestan), English (Transcaucasia, Western Europe), Polish (Ethiopia, the Mediterranean - despite the name, the Polish wheat is a little connected with Poland; the academician Vavilov considered that the center of its origin - Egypt and the adjacent countries), wheat an odnozernyanka (Asia Minor, the mountainous areas of France, Switzerland, the Balkan Peninsula) and a spelled (Azerbaijan, Germany, Switzerland).

Wheat - one of the most ancient cultural plants. It was known 6000 years ago to the shumeriyets inhabiting the territory of modern Iraq before great resettlements of the people. During the same ancient era, in 4000 years B.C., former Egyptians whose basis of food the bread which is plentifully strewed by sesame seeds formed got acquainted with it - now rolls with sesame seeds are a favourite delicacy of very many people too.

After ancient Egyptians Chinese got acquainted with wheat - its culture so extended that according to the order of the legendary emperor Shen - Shun for 2800 B.C. it “was officially included“ in number of the major cultural plants - on an equal basis with barley, soy, rice and millet which were solemnly sowed annually in day of a holiday of agriculture.

Some scientists provided almost fantastic versions concerning an extreme antiquity of cultivation of wheat. So, Dettveyler from Mecklenburg considered that wheat was grown up in 50 000 years B.C. And other scientist, N. Ya academician. Mar, reported that cultivation of wheat in the Mediterranean in general preceded emergence of the articulate speech - on his belief, primitive people were not able to speak yet, acted in dumb show and separate sounds, and already sowed corn. Unfortunately, these surprising hypotheses partly are confirmed only indirectly, by means of philological researches, comparison of names of wheat in the classic languages.

Both ancient Greeks, and Romans - much less ancient in comparison with citizens Shen - Shun or shumeriyets paid to wheat attention. In Ancient Greece wheat was already known in many grades.

Wheat is produced by the person from group of the hybridizing close cereals, but did not get to him in finished form. As for specifically soft wheat, N. I. Vavilov considered as the center of an origin of this look Hindu Kush in Afghanistan.

Be continued.